Themes 1 to 4 Edexcel A Lvel Business notes


Im a Student that is predicted an A, made theme 2 to 4 myself and stole theme 1 off someone else. if you found this and havent made notes yet, youve hit a goldmine! Enjoy!

Theme 1

The market - a place where buyers and sellers meet to exchange goods and services.

Marketing - the managerial process of identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer wants and needs profitably.

Market share - a business’s total sales within the market as a percentage

     formula - (sales / total sales) x 100

Market growth - increase in total sales within the market

    formula - (change in sales / original 1 sales) x 100

Mass market - large unspecialised market where the products are aimed at the whole market.


• large target audience • huge amounts of market research available • more competitiveness can lead to higher levels of efficiency as firms try to become more price competitive • economies of scale • increased brand awareness


• high start-up capital costs to compete e.g. advertising • high amounts of competition • vulnerable to changes in demand • harder to meet specific needs

Niche market - small targeted / specialised market which allows the supplier to meet the individual needs of the customers.


• less competition • higher consumer satisfaction - repeat customers/ brand loyalty • meets the market demand easier


• threat from larger potential competitors • specialisation leads to smaller profits • prone to changes in trends

Brand - a unique company image that differentiates from the rest of the market / other suppliers.

• can portray quality • consumers know what to expect • brand importance can exceed the importance of the price • can be used to add value

Market research - the collection and analysis of data and information about consumers, competitors and suppliers to inform a business about its market.

Primary research - data collected first-hand about the market that didn't exist before.

Secondary research - data collected by someone else about the market / data that already existed.

Quantitative research - statistical data.

Qualitative research - non-statistical data that looks at opinions.

Segmentation - the breaking down of a large homogeneous market into smaller easily identifiable sections that have similar wants, needs and demand characteristics.

Demand - the amount a customer is willing and able to buy at a given price.

Factors affecting demand:

• price of complementary goods • price of substitute goods • trends • seasons • income • laws

Supply - the amount a producer is willing and able to sell to the market at a given price in a given period.

Factors affecting supply;

• changes in cost of production e.g. increase in the price of raw materials • laws

• changes in technology • external shocks • government subsidies

Price elasticity of demand (PED) - a measure of how quantity demanded reacts to a change in price.

formula - %change in QD / %change in price








tiny typo - these notes are great though - transfer pricing should be to low tax country rather than company



imma ckoment on dis so ion loose it



wow this is good



these notes are coming in so clutch bruh!!! appreciate you!!!!



Thank youu :)



i love you



please be mine



that was my stupid sister sorry