- Created by: paulhaswell
- Created on: 06-01-19 18:05
Why did Mao launch the Cultural Revolution?
Divisions within the CCP between ideologues and pragmatists
- Mao an ideologue - accused Liu and Deng's measures as 'revisionism', and they were 'capitalist roaders'
- Mao wanted to remove those responsible that held old attitudes, including party members who tolerated intellectuals in the party
- Divide between pragmatists and ideologues more apparent after 1962 conference - Mao withdrew and left Liu, Deng, and Zhou to lead
- Pragmatists believed ideological compromises needed to achieve economic stablitly
- Pragmatists also believed in better foreign policy
- Mao believed in mass mobilisation, even if not efficient. It continued revolution
- 1963 Socialist Education Movement - preached communist values and targeted corruption
- Mao wanted to use mass mobilisation to attack corrupt party officials - Liu controlled program - made Mao unhappy
The quest for permanent revolution
- Mao needed mass mobilisation to continue revolution - people more likely to be loyal if they join in
- Mao condemned Khrushchev - said he failed to continue the revolution
- Needed to include young in revolution - they weren't part of revolution - needed them to commit violence for the party
Attacks on the bureaucracy
- Mao didn't want bureaucrats to become a priveleged elite and lose touch with the masses
- Criticisms from urban bureaucrats on Great Leap - Cultural Revolution could be seen as attack on these bureaucrats
- Mao thought 'capitalist roaders' were filling the party (Liu and Zhou moderating Mao's policies) - needed to cleanse party
Divisions within the CCP between supporters and opponents of Mao's policies
- Mao's main supporters - Lin Biao, Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng, Chen Boda
- Mao's main opponents - Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun, Bo Yibo
- 1964 - Mao accuses Liu of choosing 'capitalist road'. Accuses Deng of running own kingdom
- 1965 - Attack on Wu Han (wrote a contreversial play). Mao targeted Peng Zhen (Wu's boss), one of Liu's allies.
- Lin Biao escalated into crisis
- March 1966 - Mao assigned Liu to remove Peng Zhen from office
- CCRG set up to control Cultural Revolution. Could be blamed for mistakes
- Liu and Deng still believed they were in control - just a culture remodelling
- May 1966 - Kang Sheng pushes wall poster campaigns
- Liu and Deng try to control campaign - Mao not happy - wanted chaos!
- July 1966 - Mao swims in Yangtze river - show of strength
- Mao forces Liu and Deng to make self-criticisms
How effective were the red guards in carrying out the cultural revolution?
Mao's hold on young people
- Would help ensure long-term survival of communism ideology
- Realised their enthusiasm
- Able to control through personalilty cult and 'little red book'
- Personality cult seperated Mao from the party - Mao a hero, party repressive and a threat to Mao's achievement, because there were too many 'capitalist roaders'
- Mass rallies made students feel involved - also peer pressure
- Young people with 'wrong' class backgrounds were keen to join revolution
The mass rallies of 1966
- 18th August 1966 - Mao greets 1 million Red Guards in Tiananmen Square