The Control of Blood Glucose

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The Control of Blood Glucose...

  • Concentration of blood glucose is carefully regulated.
    • By the Alpha and Beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans
  • The normal glucose blood concentration is 90mg per 100cm3 of blood
    • Also can be between 4-6 mmol dm3.
  • If concentration of blood glucose falls or rises the alpha and beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans detect the changes and respond by releasing a hormone

If Blood Glucose Concentration Rises too High...

  • This change is detected by the Beta cells and they secrete the hormone insulin.
  • Target cells = hepatocytes (liver cells), muscle cells and some other cells including some in the brain
    • These cells possess specific cell membrane bound receptors that allow insulin to bind to them
      • Hepatocytes - liver cells. They are specialised cells that perform many metabolic functions

1) When blood passes these cells the insulin binds to the receptors

2) This activates the enzyme adenyl cyclase which converts ATP

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