Control of blood glucose concentration

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  • Control of Blood Glucose Concentra-tion
    • EATING AND EXERCISE change the CONCENTRATION OF GLUCOSE IN YOUR BODY
      • 1) All cells need a constant energy supply to work- so blood glucose concentration must be carefully controlled.
      • 2) The concentration of glucose in the blood is normally around 90 mg per 100 cm^3 of blood. It is MONITORED by cells in the PANCREAS
      • 3) Blood glucose concentration RISES after EATING FOOD containing CARBOHYDR-ATE.
      • 4) Blood glucose concentration FALLS after EXERCISE, as MORE GLUCOSE is used in RESPIRA-TION to RELEASE ENERGY.
    • INSULIN and GLUCAGON CONTROL blood glucose concentration.
      • The HORMONAL SYSTEM CONTROLS blood glucose concentration using TWO HORMONES: INSULIN and GLUCAGON
        • INSULINE LOWERS BLOOD GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION WHEN IT'S TOO HIGH
          • 1) insulin binds to specific receptors on the cell membranes of liver cells and muscle cells.
            • 2) It increases the permeability of cell membranes to glucose, so the cells take up more glucose.
              • 3) Insulin also activates enzymes that convert glucose into glycogen.
                • 4) Cells are able to store glycogen in their cytoplasm, as an energy source.
                  • 5) The process of forming glycogen from glucose is called glycogenesis.
                    • 6) Insulin also increases the rate of respiration of glucose, especially in muscle cells.
        • GLUCAGON RAISES BLOOG GLUCOSE CONCENTRA-TION WHEN IT'S TOO LOW
          • 1) Glucagon binds to specific receptors on the cell membranes of liver cells.
            • 2) Glucagon activates enzymes that break down glycogen into glucose.
              • 3) The process of breaking down glycogen is called glycogenoly-sis.
                • 4) The process of forming glucose from non-carbohydrates is called gluconeogen-esis
                  • 5) Glucagon decreases the rate of respiration of glucose in cells.
      • Both INSULIN and GLUCAGON are SECRETED by clusters of cells in the PANCREAS called the ISLE of LANGER-HANS.
        • BETA CELLS secrete INSULININ into the blood.
        • ALPHA CELLS secrete GLUCAGON into the blood.

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