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Kinetics

Rate equations
Rate=k [A]m [B]n
Where m and n are order of reaction (determined experimentally)) either 1, 2 or 0 and k is the rate
constant.
Increasing temperature would increase k because they are proportional as [A]m and [B]n are constant.
Rate determining step is the slowest step and…

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Nomenclature and Isomerism

Carbon atoms/name Prefix/ Suffix Example/functional group
1 Meth- Methanol
2 Eth- Ethanal
3 Pro- Propanone
4 But- Butanoic acid
5 Pent- Pentene
6 Hex- Hexane
Alkene -ene C=C
Arene Benz-/Phe- Benzene ring
Haloalkane Fluoro-/Chloro-/Iodo-/Bromo -F/-Cl/-I/-Br
Alcohol -ol/ Hydroxy- -OH
Aldehyde -al -C=O
\H
Ketone -one -C=O
\-…

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Carbonyl Group
Aldehydes are readily oxidised:
Test (reagent) Result with Aldehyde present Result with Ketone present
Fehling's solution Brick red precipitate Remains Blue
Acidified potassium dichromate Orange to Green Remains Orange
(H+/K2Cr2O7)
Tollen's solution Silver mirror Remains colourless

Synthesis with HCN/KCN: CN is highly toxic and HCN is a gas…

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Produces corrosive gas of HCL No harmful by products
Expensive (hydrolysis of sea water) Cheaper
High yield of aspirin due to dipoles Less yield of aspirin as less reactive

Aromatic Chemistry:
Benzene:
bond length is an intermediate between single and double bond (all same
length)
Isomers the same (fewer isomers…

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