Sleep Disorders

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Insomnia   - is the reduction in sleep resulting from difficulty from getting to sleep, staying asleep or waking early. It is very widespread; Morin et al (2009) found it in 76% of adults in their survey. Acute insomnia- coming and going for 4 weeks to 6 months. Persistent insomnia- lasts over 6 months. Primary insomnia - this is where insomnia Is caused by something other than drugs, psychiatric or environmental influences.   Hyper-arousla hypothesis is usually associated with increases body temperature, heat rate and metabolic rate over a 24-hour period. Insomniacs may sleep less at night and may actually feel more awake than non-insomniacs during the day. It is thought that this hypothesis explains the sleep disturbance. However insomnia may also be influences by personality and genetic characteristics.   Vgontzas et al (2001)- higher levels of ACTH (a stress hormone related to arousal) in insomniacs.   Nofzinger et al (2004)- the usual decease in brain activity in some areas of the brain in sleep is not present in insomniacs, so when they are asleep they are still aroused. Genetic influences on insomnia : some researchers believe that insomnia is genetic. Joho et al (2008)- found mutated genes in mice who slept 50-60% less than normal mice.   Beaulieu-Bonneau et al (2007)- 37% of insomniacs had a close relative with insomnia.   Watson et al (2006)- monozygotic twin insomnia was highly correlated (0.47) by dizygotic twins insomnia was not. Secondary insomnia- is caused or made worse by things like drugs, psychiatric or environmental influences. E.g. pain can influence sleep, so the resulting insomnia is secondary to this already existing medical condition. Insomnia and drugs - both medication and leisure drugs are associated with insomnia.   Bardage and Isacson (2002)- 20% of those using hypertension medication also suffered with insomnia.


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