Separating mixtures/ Analysing substances

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Filtration- A method for separating a insoluble solid from a liquid. General filtration consists of using filter paper and a filter funnel. The mixture is poured in to the filter funnel. The solid particles are too large to pass through so only the liquid gets through and the solid is left behind as a residue.

Evaporation- Used to separate a soluble solid from a liquid. During evaporation the water/ liquid evaporates away leaving the solid behind. Heating the mixture speeds up evaporation.

Simple distillation- separates a solvent from a solution. Every pure chemical substance has its own fixed melting and boiling points. For example, water can be separated from salt solution by simple distillation. This method works because water has a much lower boiling point than salt. When the solution is heated, the water evaporates. It is then cooled and condensed into a separate container. The salt does not evaporate and so it stays behind.

Fractional distillation - Used to separate a mixture of liquids . Different liquids will evaporate off at different


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