The Problems of the Tsarist Regime:1881 - 1905
Powerful long and short term pressures combine to provoke widespread revolutionary crisis in 1905.
Key Themes -
1) 1881: Assassination of Alexander II : Lasting impact of political terrorism
- Alexander III was impacted equally traumatic as Nicholas II who had been at Alexander's death bed.
- Alexander III was shocked by his father's death so resolved to restore the autocracy to its traditional, feared position.
- Alexander III also cast aside the reforms of his father and rely on reactionary ideas of Constantin Pobedonostev.
- While Russia's economy progressed, her political development had been stopped in its tracks.
2) 1881 - 1894: Predominance of reactionary political ideas under Alexander III
- Alexander IIi came increasingly to rely on the reactionary ideas of Constantin Pobedonostev.
- Pobedonostov combined religious orthodoxy, violent antisemitism and absolute autocracy.
- Pobedonostov also dismissed reformers of 'half wits and perverted apes' and maintained that 'the whole secret of Russia's order and prosperity is in the top, in the person of the supreme authority'.
- Police repression reached new heights.
- Jewish community suffered in a succession of violent pogoms.
- Most lasting of all was the destruction of every trace of democracy and constitutionalism.
- Russia's political development had been prevented.
3) Empire seemed secure (1894)