Retrieval failure

  • Created by: gemshort
  • Created on: 19-01-18 14:23

Endel Tulving's encoding specificity principle: in order to remember information, the same cue (trigger) must be present at both encoding and retrieval, e.g. learning something in one classroom and finding it hard to remember in another classroom because of the absence of a cue

Forgetting due to lack of meaningful cues: when forgetting occurs because cues are missing; these cues are relevant to what needs to be memorised, e.g. when a memorisation technique is used

Context-dependent forgetting: when forgetting occurs because external cues are missing, e.g. location or temperature

State-dependent forgetting: when forgetting occurs because internal cues are missing, e.g. mood or alertness

Research studies

Godden and Baddeley (1975) - context-dependent forgetting

  • Procedure: underwater divers were asked to learn a list of words either


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