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  • Created by: M.e.D
  • Created on: 10-01-15 16:04

  • How oten to bristich poeple consume media? (OFCOM 2010)
  • 7 hours 5 mins per day
  • amounts to 45 % of waking time


  • Many people assume that media use is associated with chnages in behaviour particularly increases in agression
  • it may have long lasting negative consequences for eductaional acheivement and subsequent socioeconomic status and wellebing (HANCOX ET AL 2005)
  • it is passive - leads a a sednetary lifetyle, obesity and even diabetes (HU ET AL 2001)

how can media lead to agression?


  • social learning theory
  • desentisation
  • physiological arousal (short term)
  • cultivation theory


  • People are not born with behaviours - they must learnt them through direct experience or observation
  • people learnt through observing behaviors of others (models) and oberving the outcomes of these behvaiours
  • they observed behvaior is the vicariously reinforced if there are positive consequences for the model - or lack of negative consequence
  • this promotes the acceptability of the behvaiour and disinhibits the observer
  • the development and strength of a that behviour largely depends on teh rewarding and pu8nishing consequences of the action

how does this relate to media and aggression?

  • media provides a lot of models
  • violence often seems to solve a problem - fight crime (rewarding)
  • poeple engage in symbolic modellin -fictional characters which can infleunce peoples behvaiour

types of reinforcemnt?

  • self reinforcemnet - feeelings of pleasure/ satisfcation
  • extreinsic reinforcments - external rewards
  • vicarous reinforcemnet - viewing rewards of others

all of these mean a behvaviour is liekly to be repeated

who is a person most likely to model themselves after?


  • 36 boys and 36 girls age 3-6
  • groups = agressive/ non agressive/ female model/  male model/ same sex model/ opposite ses model
  • immitative verbal and physical aggression
  • mild agression aousal
  • 70% of non agressive group - scored 0 on aggression scale
  • significant difference between groups
  • imitative behvaiour shown
  • boys = more physically and verbally agresssive both imitative and non immitative and engaged in more gun play - gender differences
  • both boys and girl imitated male model more tahn female model

"The subjects readiness to imitate 'neutral' figures' indicates that mere observation ofa gression is enought o produce agession in children"  

X- artificial - the way the children watched = untypical of normal vmdeia viewing, short and focused with no narrative

X. - lab study with poor ecological validity

X - cannot generalise bahviour to a bobo doll to poeple - children can distinguish between fantasy violence and reality

X- Ethical issues


what is desentisation?

  • a dulling in sensitivity to aggressive behvaiour in everyday life
  • reducing anxiety to violence
  • poeple become compfotbale numb

How are the effects of desentisation - CRANAGEY, ANDERSON & BUSHMAN 2007 ?

  • reduction in physilogiacl responses
  • increase in aggresive nehvaiour
  • flattening of emotional reactions to violence
  • reduction in liklihood of helping victim
  • recuction in sympathy for victim
  • reduction in percieved guilt

how does this relate to media and aggression?

  • 85% of video games contain violence and over half revolve around violent actions ( CHILDREN NOW, 2001)


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