criminal psychology

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  • Created by: M.e.D
  • Created on: 10-01-15 14:42

What is criminal psyhcology?

  • focuses on the psyhcological aspcts of criminals/ criminal behaviour / sociall contexts of crime
  • deals with teh psychological aspects of criminal investigation such as eye witness testimonys

What is an eye witness testimony?

  •  a reconstruction of witnessed events used in law courts as evidence
  • however accuracy is varied becuse of many factors 

What did the DEVLIN REPORT 1976 report?

  • out of 2000 line ups 45% resulted in a perp being picked out
  • out of this 45% - 82% resulted in conviction
  • out of 2000 cases 350 had an eye witness - 74% of these resulted in conviction 

so to sum up?

  • eye witness testimonys are very importnat
  • Jurors have great faith in them (PANROD AND CUTLER 1995)

(Because of this EYT is one of the most resaerched topics in criminal psychology)

Why is this dangerous?

  • Innacurricies are very frequent
  • EYT misindentifaction and innacurricies = leading cause for wrongful conviction in the US -more than any other causes combined (INNOCENCE PROJECT, 2005)

Give an example of EYT misindenditfication?

  • JAMES CHARLES DE MENEZES 2005

What can effect EYT accuracy?

  • biases in perception in and attention
  • memory and expectations
  • post event factors
  • within event factors

BIASES IN PERCEPTION AND ATTENTION:

OWN ANCHOR EFFECTS - FLINN AND SHEPARED 1986

  • study involved 588 particpipants
  • found that their estimation of a targets height and weight differ depending on whether or not they themsleves are above or below average
  • participants use their own physical charcteristics as a norm to base descriptions of others off
  • aslso found that people have a tendancy to shy away from extreme judgements and regress towards the mean - e.g. underestimate height of tall poeple and over estimate height of short poeple
  • "in regards to the criminals appearance, the most important determinant of this type of estimate is the witnesses own wieght and height" (MEISSNER, SPOROER, SCHOOLER 2007)

DISTANCE AND LIGHTING

  • it is assumed that the majority of crimes  takes place at night (MEISSNER, SPORER,SCHOOLER 2007)
  • our vision is greatly reuced in low illumination 
  • distance and lighting can effect and influence facial perception and accuracy

YARMEY 1986 

  • examined eye witness recall under different conditions
  • day/ begining of twilight/ end of twilight/ night
  • lighting had significant effcet an reall ability
  • superior during the day

KOPPEN & LUCHUN 1997

  • better illumination and a closer distance allows much greater and stronger descriptions

INATTENTIONAL BLINDNESS SIMONS AND LEVIN 1998)

  • Observers lack a precise and complete visual represntation of their world ( SIMONS AND LEVIN 1998, P.64)
  • We are paticularly unable to detect change 
  • we tend to focus on more importnat visual information
  • and do not get a full representation
  • we may not even perceive certain objects

GORILLA STUDY 1999

  • 288 participants
  • video of basketball being passed
  • told to count passes
  • 44 seconds in a gorilla walked through the game - lasted 5 seconds
  • people with counted correctly and did not see gorilla / saw gorilla and counted incorrectly/ did not do either
  • only 42% of people saw the gorilla
  • this was a replice of…

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