Psychological skills

  • Created by: laurynbo
  • Created on: 08-06-18 14:42

Ethics

Social- In social psychology there are issues of consent, causing psychological harm and right to withdraw within odedience reseaarch. 

Cognitive- Case studies of brain damangaed patneis, such as HM, raise issues of confidentiality and informed consent. 

Biological- Studying agression and issues around links to brain damage. Use of brain scanning techinqiues and protection of partcipants. Issues of confidentaility and informed conset especially whichin adoption studies. Ethical issues with the use of animals within biological psychology. 

Learning- The ethical issues involded in laboratory experiments. Issues with Watson and Rayner and the children in the Bandura study.

Clinical- Blames the person for their disorder- such as in CBT.

Criminal- Exposong individuals to potentially stresfull situations like in mock trials or artifical crime scences. May cause distress if they can relate to the artifical situation. 

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Practical issues

Social- Practical issues when researching prejudice such as social desirbility. Issues with interviews/self-reports when measuring obedience and prejudice. Importance of sampling articiapnts into conditions like in Sherif. 

Cognitive- Much of congnitive research relies o lab experiments so raises issues around ecological validity, mandane realism in the tasks carried out by participants, control and operationnalisation of variables.

Biological- Issues around cost and equiptment when scanning and measuring the complexity of the brain. Cause and effect when trying to infer conclusions from studying such a complex area. 

Learning- Generalising from animals to humans. Problems with using overt and structured observations. 

Clinical- Qualitative data is hard to analyse, it may result in unrealiable and subjective results. 

Criminal- Field experiments require considerations about the IV and DV.

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Reductionism

Social- Reducing behaviour down to an equation in Social Impact Theory. Measuring prejudice attitudes by questionnaires can reduce complex behaviour. 

Cognitive- Studying memneory in a lab is not the saem as studying memoery in the real world so ignores the importance of the evniornment and other variables which can affect cognitive processes. 

Biological- Focusing on aggression when studying the brain means reducing behviour to individual structures like the preforntal cortex of amygdala, this view neglects the whole person/other enviornment factors for behaviour so less valid. 

Learning- Reduing animal behaviour to simple brain functioning. Stimuls-response connections reduce all behaviour to just singular cause and effect and do not take cognition into account.

Clinical- Ignores interations between biilogy and enviornment. Therapy looks at many components of illness. 

Criminal- Reduces the complexity of the nature of criminality. 

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Comparison between ways of explains behaviour

Social- Issues of personality, culture, gender and situation in explaining both obedience and prejudice. Use two different theories to explain prejudice and obdeience behaviour. 

Cognitive- Four models of memory show different ways of explaining memnoery either through a series of structures or the way memoery is processed. 

Biological- Comparing Freud's ideas and biological explanations of aggression. Role of evolution against hormones when explaing aggression. 

Learning- Different learning theorys explain learning through association, reinforcement and imitation. Only social learning theory takes cognition directly into account. 

Clinical- Biological factors can explain mentall illness. 

Criminal- Comparisons with bioligcal and cognitive. Social factors influence behaviour. 

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Psychology as a science

Social- Controls over variables in lab experiments can lead to replicability and reliability. However, bias in questionnaires can lead to issues of validity. 

Cognitive- One of the most scientific perspectives, as it adopts the scientific method in explaining how we process infromation. Experiments and controls mean replicability and reliability which are cornerstones of the scientific method. 

Biological- Synaptic transmission; brain scanning techniques; all objectiveand scientific help increase credibility. However, some methods, such as correlations and psychodynamic explanations of aggression, reduce the scientific status. 

Learning- The explicit focus of behaviourism on the observable behaviour that can be scientifically studied and objectivly redorded. 

Clinical- The medical modle is seen as scientific.

Criminal- Lab experiments. There are tesable hypothesis. 

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Culture and gender

Social- Obedience not found to be influenced by gender. However, are cultural differences in obedience. 

Cognitive- Sebastian and Hernandez-Gil (2012) found differences in digit span length among Spanish and English speakers. How memory is reconstructed based on cultural differences or gender stereotypes. 

Biological- Hormonal differences between males and females possibly influcing behaviour, such as aggression.  

Learning- Principles of reinforcement patterns in various cultures determine what is learned. Gender appropriate behaviour is dicated be reinforcemnet and imitation. 

Clinical- In Rosenhan's study there were no gender differences found. 

Criminal- There was cultural differences in Loftus and Palmer's study. it was difficult to apply findings to other cultures and sub-cultures. 

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Nature-nurture

Social- Role of authoritarian personality and upbrining in obedience and prejudice. Links to Corhs (2012) study on prejudice and RWA/SDO suggest prejudice in more nurture than nature. 

Cognitive- HM would suggest that the hippocampus plays an important inherent role in forming new memories so sides with the nature argument. However, recontructive memory emphasises how our learned schemas abd experiences have helped our memories develop through interaction with the enviornment. 

Biological- The focus of brain structure/CNS/hormones/neurotransmitters and brain localisation in aggression are all on the bature side of the debate. 

Learning- Behaviourist focus on observable and measurable, so look at nuture side of argument. Behaviour, such as gender role is learned rather than biologically determined. 

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How psychological knowledge has changed overtime

Social- Chnages from Milgram (1960s) and the replication work of Burger (2009) into obedience. Similarly, Cohrs (2012) further examined the work of Adorno (1950) on personlality and prejudice 

Cognitive- Baddeley's work studying short and long-term memory later led to the working memoery model. this model was later added to (eposodic buffer) and has illustratednhow knowledge about behaviour is built over time. Most recent research into EWT has added to existing findings from the last half a century about the debate around the reliability of witnesses. 

Biological- Development of scanning techniques up to fMIR and development of older methods such as trepanning at CAT or MRI.

Learning- Changes in treatments for phobias from flodding to CBT. Behaviourism has evolved into behaviour analysis and its prinicples are used in a more applied manner. 

Clinical- How mental illness is portrayed in the media. 

Criminal- Is EWT reliable in court? 

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Issues of social control

Social- Making people obey autority and socialising them into an egentic state from a young age. Knowledge of *** to induce and reduce prejudice within individuals and groups.

Cognitive- The use of EWT and manipulation using leading questions in courtroom situations.

Biological- Using kowledge of brain function to control individuals, such as Raine et al. and aggression, could lead to unfair labelling and treatment and even innecessary therapy. Prefrontal lobotomies have been used to control anti-social behaviour in the past. Chemical castration of males to block male hormones used with sex offencders. 

Learning- Use of learning theories in therapt can be social control, inclduing issues of power of the therapist which can be open to abuse in, for exmple, the token economy. 

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Knowledge in society

Social- Reduction of prejudice. Explaining football violence/acts pf terrorism/cult behviour/historial atrocities. 

Cognitive- Use of psychological knowledge to help with dementia and dyslexia. Helping aid revision techniques for students preparing for exams. To help with the debate whether EWT is reliable or not.

Biological- Understanding explanations of aggression to help with treatments and possible predications of risk. Understanding, explaining and treating drug addiction. 

Learning- Using patterns of reward to shape desired behaviour in schools or prisons. Introduction to film censroship and the watershed to protect children from imitating. 

Clinical- Can use see difficulties in diagnosing abnormality. 

Crimial-

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Social sensitivity

Social- Prejudice links to racism and the impact of research on participants and the groups they represent. 

Cognitive- Issues of memory loss due to dementia and how the study of this is socially sensitive for the individual and their fmilies. 

Biological- Linking biology to behaviour such as aggression, homosexuality or intelligence is socailly sensitive for those involved as it has implications for the rest of society. 

Learning- The power of the therapist over the client particulary in aversion therapy. Shaping a child's behaviour through rewards could be viewed as manipulative and conformist. 

Clinical- Labelling people with an illness to investigate possible causes or treatment. 

Criminal- How data is collected- by atrtificial crime scenes and mock trials. 

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