Proteins - amino acids, proteins, bonds and more.

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Proteins are made from long changes of amino acids

  • a Dipeptide is formed when two amino acids join together
  • a Polypeptide is formed when more than two amino acids join together
  • Protein are made up of one or more polypeptides.

Amino acid and variation group

  • All amino acids have the same general structure
  • a carboxyl group (-COOH)
  • an amino acid (-NH2) attached to a carbon atom
  • The difference between the amino acids is the variable group (R) they contain.

Amino acids joined together by peptide bonds

  • Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds - forming dipeptides and polypeptides
  • A molecule of water is released during a reaction
  • The reverse of this reaction - water molecule is added to beaked the peptide bonds. This is called a hydrolysis reaction.

Protein Structure

  • Primary structure - sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
  • Secondary structure - polypeptide chain doesn’t remain flat or straight. Hydrogen bonds form between the amino acids in the chain. Make it automatically coil into a alpha (α) helix or fold into a beta (β) pleated sheet.
  • Tertiary Structure - coiled or folded chain of amino acids often coiled or folded




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