physics aslevel summary notes from the mark schemes
 Created by: nxrx10
 Created on: 280120 15:56
Note that there are not many formulas in my notes, u need to know them.
Uncertainties

Systematic error: Zero error / wrongly calibrated scale

Random error: Reading scales from different angles / wrongly interpolating between scale readings

Systematic error effect: reading larger/smaller than the reading by constant amount

Random error effect: scatter in readings about the true reading

Accuracy: how close/closeness of the value to the true value

Precision: range of the values/measurements / size of the smallest division on the measuring instrument
Force & Motion

Force: rate of change of momentum

Equilibrium: Resultant Force = 0 / Resultant Torque = 0 / constant velocity

Displacement: Distance travelled in a specified direction

Velocity: change of displacement per unit time

Mass: Property that resists change in motion

Direction of acceleration: Resultant force acts [direction]

N’s 2nd law: Resultant Force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum

Elastic Collision: Energy + KE + Momentum conserved / vapp = vsep (relative v before = () relative v after collision)

Inelastic Collision: Energy + Momentum conserved, KE not conserved / KE converted into sound/heat / particles stick together after collision

Elastic Collision: total KE before collision = total KE after collision / relative speed of approach = relative speed of separation

Momentum: Average Force = Rate of change of momentum  Weight

suvat works in every motion w/ constant acceleration

Centre of gravity: point where all weight acts on

Moment: Parallel => no moment about any points

Moment: Resultant Force at 1 point = Fsinθ + Fcosθ

Couple: pair of Forces that only produces rotation / equal magnitude / parallel but opposite directions / separated by diameter d

Torque: 1 of the Forces ⨉ Perpendicular distance between forces

Projectile: distance = curve path / displacement: horizontal or vertical distance

Air Resistance: acts in opposite direction of velocity

N’s 3rd law: reaction force acts from the ground/earth

N’s 3rd law: Collision: 2 objects have the same time contact

Graph: +ive to ive velocity => direction is reversed
Pressure & Density

Weight = Upthrust + Viscous drag

Upthrust: Pressure changes with depth => Pressure (Force) acting from the bottom > Pressure (Force) from the top

Viscous Force: magnitude increases with speed

Work Done < GPE cos Work Done by Upthrust

Upthrust = Pressure difference ⨉ Area
Materials

Deformation of solid: Tensile = stretch / Compressive = squashed

Obeys Hooke’s law: straight line goes through the origin

Elastic deformation: Spring returns to its original length as load is removed

Plastic deformation: Spring undergoes permanent stretch as load is removed

Elastic region: before elastic/proportionality limit point

Plastic region: after elastic limit point

Ultimate strain: Breaking point
Energy

Conservation of mechanical energy = KE + GPE

Work done = Magnitude of F × distance moved in the direction of the force

Work done ≠ KE : loss in Potential energy

EPE = ½ Fx or ½ kx²

GPE: energy of mass due to its position in a gravitational field

KE: energy of mass due to its motion/velocity
…
Comments
Report