physics as-level summary notes from the mark schemes

  • Created by: nxrx10
  • Created on: 28-01-20 15:56

Note that there are not many formulas in my notes, u need to know them.


  • Systematic error: Zero error / wrongly calibrated scale

  • Random error: Reading scales from different angles / wrongly interpolating between scale readings

  • Systematic error effect: reading larger/smaller than the reading by constant amount

  • Random error effect: scatter in readings about the true reading

  • Accuracy: how close/closeness of the value to the true value 

  • Precision: range of the values/measurements / size of the smallest division on the measuring instrument

Force & Motion

  • Force: rate of change of momentum

  • Equilibrium: Resultant Force = 0 / Resultant Torque = 0 / constant velocity

  • Displacement: Distance travelled in a specified direction

  • Velocity: change of displacement per unit time

  • Mass: Property that resists change in motion

  • Direction of acceleration: Resultant force acts [direction]

  • N’s 2nd law: Resultant Force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum

  • Elastic Collision: Energy + KE + Momentum conserved / vapp = vsep (relative v before = (-) relative v after collision)

  • Inelastic Collision: Energy + Momentum conserved, KE not conserved / KE converted into sound/heat / particles stick together after collision

  • Elastic Collision: total KE before collision = total KE after collision / relative speed of approach = relative speed of separation

  • Momentum: Average Force = Rate of change of momentum - Weight

  • suvat works in every motion w/ constant acceleration

  • Centre of gravity: point where all weight acts on

  • Moment: Parallel => no moment about any points

  • Moment: Resultant Force at 1 point = Fsinθ + Fcosθ

  • Couple: pair of Forces that only produces rotation / equal magnitude / parallel but opposite directions / separated by diameter d

  • Torque: 1 of the Forces ⨉ Perpendicular distance between forces

  • Projectile: distance = curve path / displacement: horizontal or vertical distance

  • Air Resistance: acts in opposite direction of velocity

  • N’s 3rd law: reaction force acts from the ground/earth

  • N’s 3rd law: Collision: 2 objects have the same time contact

  • Graph: +ive to -ive velocity => direction is reversed

Pressure & Density

  • Weight = Upthrust + Viscous drag

  • Upthrust: Pressure changes with depth => Pressure (Force) acting from the bottom > Pressure (Force) from the top

  • Viscous Force: magnitude increases with speed

  • Work Done < GPE cos Work Done by Upthrust

  • Upthrust = Pressure difference ⨉ Area


  • Deformation of solid: Tensile = stretch / Compressive = squashed

  • Obeys Hooke’s law: straight line goes through the origin

  • Elastic deformation: Spring returns to its original length as load is removed

  • Plastic deformation: Spring undergoes permanent stretch as load is removed

  • Elastic region: before elastic/proportionality limit point

  • Plastic region: after elastic limit point

  • Ultimate strain: Breaking point


  • Conservation of mechanical energy = KE + GPE

  • Work done = Magnitude of F × distance moved in the direction of the force

  • Work done ≠ KE : loss in Potential energy

  • EPE = ½ Fx or  ½ kx²

  • GPE: energy of mass due to its position in a gravitational field 

  • KE: energy of mass due to its motion/velocity




Feel free to save my notes to ur document