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Geogr
aphy
(
U NIT
1 PHYSI
CAL)

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1
­ RIVERS,
FLOODS
AND MANAGEMENT
DRAINAGE BASINS:
It is an area surrounding the river where the rain falling on the land flows into that river (catchment).
The boundary of a drainage basin is the watershed ­ any precipitation that falls beyond the water shed
enters a different basin.
They…

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WATER BALANCE BUDGET:
Water balance is worked out from inputs and
outputs; it affects how much water is stored in the basin.
1. In wet seasons, precipitation exceeds
evapotranspiration. This creates a water surplus. The
ground stores fill with water so there's more surface runoff
and higher discharge, so river…

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4) SOIL TYPE AFFECTS LAG TIME AND PEAK DISCHARGE
Sandy soils = lots of infiltration. Clay soils = low infiltration rates = increase surface runoff, reduces lag time
and increases peak discharge.
5) VEGETATION AFFECTS LAG TIME AND PEAK DISCHARGE
Makes Vegetation = interception and slows its movement to river…

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· When the river is forced to slow down (e.g. before a narrow section of a channel) it loses energy.
· Energy is lost when the river meets the sea.
· The capacity is the total load that a river can transport at a given point.
· The competence describes…

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At the mouth of a river: little gravitational potential energy, but lots of kinetic energy.



CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECT VELOCITY AND DISCHARGE:
Velocity and discharge of river increases further downstream.
Discharge increases as tributaries and more surface runoff join the main channel.
River velocity influenced by gradient, discharge and channel characteristics…

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3) As the hard rock is undercut, it can collapse. A deep plunge pool is carved out by abrasion at the
foot of the waterfall as the bits of collapsed rock are swirled around b turbulence.
4) Overtime, more undercutting causes more collapse. The waterfall will retreat leaving behind a…

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BRAIDING
WHAT IS A BRAIDED CHANNEL?
- A braided channel is the name given to a single stream in a braided river network. They are formed when islands
(which are often temporary) of sediment build up in the river and
split the water into lots of smaller streams that will…

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WHAT IS A DELTA?
- A landform produced by the deposition of sediment at
the mouth of a river as it enters a sea or lake. Deposition
occurs as the river's velocity and
sediment-carrying capacity decrease as it enters the lake
or sea, and bedload and suspended material are
dumped.…

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more symmetrical, with steep sides and a gorge -like appearance. These are described as intrenched meanders.
Where incision is due to a relative fall in sea level, giving rejuvenation along the river course, knick points and river
terraces will also be formed.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
CAUSES AND IMPACTS OF FLOODING:
· The…

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Georgia

SO USEFUL THANK YOU

Reorran

A whole meme/10.

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