They were successful due to

  • Bohemond's military genuis
  • Discovery of the Lance
  • Internal Divisions in Syria after the death of Malik Shah (1092)
  • Timely arrival of Merchants


  • walls impregable
  • garrison of 5k inside + food
  • too large to encircle = food supplies from Harim
  • Lack of food for crusaders by Nov. = starvation

Supplies brought from St Simeon + Latakia due to presence of Merchants but this wasnt reliable in winter months + not enough to feed force. Crusaders relied on foraging

DECEMBER 1097: Robert F + Bohemond sent w/ 400 on foraging expedition whlist Daquq was enroute Antioch with 10k force. They were encircled & rallied their knights who managed to break through the lines, scattering many of Daquq's men. The knights only survived and the expeditions failed.

After R + B departure, Yahgi Siyan led a counter attack & Adehmar's standard was captured. It wasnt a serious defeat but by 1098 the forces survived 2 serious attacks & their conditions hadn't improved. Hunger + Low morale was still a problem

crusaders panicked at the sight of aurora's & saw these as God's displeasure. Adehmar demanded a return to purity and fasting/prayers were undertaken for 3 days. women were expelled (monastry in motion) but many crusaders still attempted to flee (ex. Peter the Hermit)

Taticuis wanted to travel back to Asia Minor to search for food and the princes were expecting reinforcements from the emperor but felt betrayed (Alexios heard from Stephen that they were bound to get anihillated)

  • Bohemond threatened to depart = was offered Antioch if it was captured
  • horses died in the winter = many men lost their horses

FEBRUARY 1098: Ridwad led


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