OCR GCE Biology - Cells

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Which 3 factors can influence decisions about science?





What are the 2 types of cell?




Prokaryotic ********* are prokaryotic cells



Which of the cells prokaryotic and eukaryotic contain cells?



Which type of cells is more complex, eukaryote or prokaryote?



Which type of cells are animal and plant cells?



Give an example of a prokaryote organism



What are organelles?

-Parts of cells, each one has a specific function


Name three organelles/structure found in plant cells not found in animal cells

-Cell wall




Describe the cell wall

-Made of cellulose, has holes for exchanging substances with adjacent cells


What is the vacuole a compartment for?

-Cell sap


What are most organelles surrounded by?



Where can a cell surface membrane be found?

-Animal cells, plant cells, prokaryotic cells


What is the cell surface membrane made of?

-Lipids and proteins


What does the cell surface membrane do?

-Regulates movement of substances into and out of the cell


What do the cell surfaces often contain on the surface? What do they do?

-Receptor molecules

-Respond to chemicals like hormones


How is the cell wall compared to the cell membrane?



Which types of cells does the cell wall surround?

-Plant cell


What is the cell wall made of?

-Carbohydrate cellulose


What does the cell wall do?

-Supports plant cells


How many membranes does the nuclear envelope have?

-1 Double membrane


What does the nucleus contain?




What is chromatin made of?

-Proteins and DNA (DNA controls the cells activities)

What sort of substances need to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm? How do they do this?


-Nuclear pores


What is the function of the nucleolus?

-Make ribosomes


Describe the lysosome? (3 marks)

-Round organelle

-Surrounded by membrane

-No clear internal structure


What does the lysosome do?

-Contains digestive enzymes, kept separate from the cytoplasm by a surrounding membrane

-Digest invading cells or break down worn out components of the cell


What does a ribosome look like?

-Small subunit

-Large subunit


Give 2 locations a ribosome can have in the cell?

-Floating free

-Rough endoplasmic reticulum


What is the function of the ribosomes?

-Site where proteins are made


What does RER stand for?

-Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum


What is the core of RER? What are attached?




What is the function of the RER?

-Folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes


How does the SER differ from the RER? What is its function?

-No ribosomes

-Synthesise and process lipids


What is a vesicle?

-Small fluid-filled sac in the cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane


What is the role of a vesicle?

-Transport substances in and out of the cell (via the plasma membrane) and between organelles.


For packaging in vesicles, give examples


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