OCR GCE Biology - Cells

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Which 3 factors can influence decisions about science?

-Economic

-Social

-Environmental

 

What are the 2 types of cell?

-Eukaryotic

-Prokaryotic

 

Prokaryotic ********* are prokaryotic cells

-Organisms

 

Which of the cells prokaryotic and eukaryotic contain cells?

-Both

 

Which type of cells is more complex, eukaryote or prokaryote?

-Eukaryote

 

Which type of cells are animal and plant cells?

-Eukaryote

 

Give an example of a prokaryote organism

-Bacterium

 

What are organelles?

-Parts of cells, each one has a specific function

 

Name three organelles/structure found in plant cells not found in animal cells

-Cell wall

-Vacuole

-Chloroplasts

 

Describe the cell wall

-Made of cellulose, has holes for exchanging substances with adjacent cells

 

What is the vacuole a compartment for?

-Cell sap

 

What are most organelles surrounded by?

-Membranes

 

Where can a cell surface membrane be found?

-Animal cells, plant cells, prokaryotic cells

 

What is the cell surface membrane made of?

-Lipids and proteins

 

What does the cell surface membrane do?

-Regulates movement of substances into and out of the cell

 

What do the cell surfaces often contain on the surface? What do they do?

-Receptor molecules

-Respond to chemicals like hormones

 

How is the cell wall compared to the cell membrane?

-Rigid

 

Which types of cells does the cell wall surround?

-Plant cell

 

What is the cell wall made of?

-Carbohydrate cellulose

 

What does the cell wall do?

-Supports plant cells

 

How many membranes does the nuclear envelope have?

-1 Double membrane

 

What does the nucleus contain?

-Chromatin

-Nucleolus

 

What is chromatin made of?

-Proteins and DNA (DNA controls the cells activities)

What sort of substances need to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm? How do they do this?

-RNA

-Nuclear pores

 

What is the function of the nucleolus?

-Make ribosomes

 

Describe the lysosome? (3 marks)

-Round organelle

-Surrounded by membrane

-No clear internal structure

 

What does the lysosome do?

-Contains digestive enzymes, kept separate from the cytoplasm by a surrounding membrane

-Digest invading cells or break down worn out components of the cell

 

What does a ribosome look like?

-Small subunit

-Large subunit

 

Give 2 locations a ribosome can have in the cell?

-Floating free

-Rough endoplasmic reticulum

 

What is the function of the ribosomes?

-Site where proteins are made

 

What does RER stand for?

-Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

 

What is the core of RER? What are attached?

-Fluid

-Ribosomes

 

What is the function of the RER?

-Folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes

 

How does the SER differ from the RER? What is its function?

-No ribosomes

-Synthesise and process lipids

 

What is a vesicle?

-Small fluid-filled sac in the cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane

 

What is the role of a vesicle?

-Transport substances in and out of the cell (via the plasma membrane) and between organelles.

 

For packaging in vesicles, give examples

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