OCR Biology - Cell Signalling

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  • Created by: Denise24
  • Created on: 10-03-14 17:59

Cell Signalling Pathways

  • Can be categorised based on the distance over which the signalling occurs

Endocrine Signalling

  • large distances
  • ofen where the signalling molecule is transported in the circulatory system 

Paracrine Signalling

  • ccurs between cells which are close together
  • sometimes directly
  • sometimes via extracellular fluid

Autocrine Signalling

  • is where the cell stimulates a response within itself 
  • by releasing signals for its own receptors 
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Viruses and Cell Signalling

  • Invade cells by binding to Cell Receptor Sites that are normally used in cell signalling
  • Poisons binds to the Cell Receptors
    • Prevents the targeted cells from working properly
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Medicinal Drugs and Cell Signalling

  • Work because they are complementary to certain Cell Receptors Sites
  • Some drugs block these Receptors so that the natural signalling molecules can't stimulate a response
  • Others are designed to mimic natural signalling molecules that the body can't produce
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Hormones and Cell Signalling

  • Used in cell signalling molecules in multicellular organisms
  • Produced in a cell
    • Sometimes in response to environmental changes
  • Hormones are released and bind to Receptor Sites on a Target Cell and starts a response

Hormone Mediated Cell Signalling Pathway Example

  • Is in the use of Insulin to lower blood glucose levels
  • Beta-Cells in the pancreas release the hormone insulin in to the blood in response to high glucose levels
    • Binds to the cells such as mucle and liver cells
    • Causes them to take up more glucose
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How cell signalling works?

  • Cells detect signals with Cell Receptors on their plasma membranes
    • which are usually Glycoproteins or Glycolipids
  • The signalling molecule binds to the Receptor because its shape is complementary
  • This stimulates a response
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What is Cell Signalling?

  • Cells need to interact with their environment and other cells around them
  • Single cellular organisms need to detect nutrients in their environment
  • Cells in multicellular organisms are involved in a complex system of communication with each other
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