Cells and Organelles - OCR Biology

Cells and Organelles

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  • Created on: 07-01-11 13:50
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Cells and Organelles
03 January 2011
Organisms can be Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes
Prokaryotic cells single-celled organisms
Eukaryotic cells are complex and include all animal and plant cells
Prokaryotic cells smaller and simpler
Both cells contain organelles
Plant and Animal Cells are Both Eukaryotic
Animal cell
Cell membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Nuclear envelope
Bacterial Cells are Prokaryotic
Smaller than eukaryotic
Don't have nucleus - DNA floats free in cytoplasm
DNA is circular - eukaryotic linear
Fewer organelles
Smaller ribosomes than eukaryotic
Cell surface (plasma) membrane
Membrane found on surface of animal cells and just inside cell wall of plant cells and
prokaryotic cells
Made of lipids and protein
Regulates movement of substances into and out of cell
Has receptor molecules on it - allows it to respond to chemicals like hormones
Large organelle surrounded by nuclear envelope - contains many pores
Contains chromatin and nucleolus
Chromatin made from proteins and DNA - controls cells activities
Pores allow substances to move between nucleus and cytoplasm
Nucleolus makes ribosomes
Round organelle
Surrounded by membrane
No clear internal structure
Contains digestive enzymes - can be used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out
components of cell

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Very small organelle that floats free in cytoplasm or is attached to RER
Site where proteins made
Endoplasmic reticulum
Two types: SER - system of membranes enclosing fluid-filled space, RER - similar, but covered
in ribosomes
SER synthesises and processes lipids
RER folds and processes proteins made by ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus
Group of fluid-filled flattened sacs
Processes and packages new lipids and protein
Also makes lysosomes
Have double membrane - inner one folded to form structures called cristae
Inside is matrix -…read more

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In cross-section have outer membrane and ring of nine pairs of protein microtubules inside with
single pair of microtubules in middle
Microtubules allow cilia to move
Moved used by cell to move substances along cell surface
On eukaryotic cells
Are like cilia but longer
Stick out from cell surface and surround by cell membrane
Inside like cilia - two in middle and 9 pairs around edge
Microtubules contract to make flagellum move
Used like outboard motors to propel cells forward
Plant cell
Cell wall…read more


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