New Liberalism: Challenges to Liberalism from Abroad


Diplomacy: To show Britain was morally upright

Strategic Planning: Planning for war

Britain's New Order: E.g. Splendid Isolation

The Two Power Standard

  • The navy had to be as strong as the next two greatest naval powers
  • After 1900 it was impossible to maintain this in the Far East since Britain had 4 large warships but Russia and France had 6 with 3 more on the way

The Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 1902

  • Britain feared Russian power as it couldn't maintain enough ships in the Far East
  • The alliance formed meant that if either of the countries were involved in a war with another country the other wouldn't get involved
  • Japan wanted to resist Russia in Northern China and wanted to gain land there
  • Japan had 6 warships and Britain had 4 which could beat the Russians and the French
  • In 1904 Japan destroyed Russia in a war and it resulted in the Anglo-Japanese Navy Alliance being renewed in 1905
  • It now meant that if a country attacked territories on Asian Mainland they would both help

The Blue Water Policy

  • Committee of Defence and Government thought a strong navy was more important than the army for defence so focused on it due to:
  • British Supplies from industries oversea: 50% of meat, 80% of wheat and 90% of raw materials were from abroad,enemy control of seas would starve Britain out so the navy would act as a Home Defence
  • British Wealth from Trade and Shipping: 50% of merchant ships were British, the navy was needed to defend the empire's trade
  • Strong navy would mean Strong European Power

Improving Armed Forces

  • Navy:
    • Dreadnoughts were introduced by Fisher, First Sea Lord in 1904
    • The old ships were scrapped and replaced with a smaller…


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