AS History

  • Created by: Rachel
  • Created on: 08-05-14 20:43
Who were the two main party's in 1900?
The Conservatives and the Liberals
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Whats a coalition?
When two party's join together
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Who was Salisbury?
Leader of the Conservatives
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Who was he replaced by and when?
Balfour in 1902
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Why were the Liberals out of power in the years 1886-1906?
They did not have an identity, there was a lack of working class support, Gladstone was the leader and he was an 'old liberal' so the party still followed the ideology of 'laissez faire' which meant no state intervention
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Name the reasons why the conservatives lost
1899-1902 Boer War, 1902 Education Act, Tariff Reform, 1901 Taff Vale, Chinese Slavery, Balfour
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Arguably which one effected them worst
1901 Taff Vale because Railway workers lost their right to strike, the government chose the side of the employer, therefore the working class felt like they had no representation so they turned to the Liberals
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Name some of the reasons as to why the Liberals won
The Conservatives mistakes, their good exploitation of the Conservative mistakes, the 1903 Lib Lab Pact, the Party formed a new identity (some MP'S New Liberalism)
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Why did the Liberals achieve a Landslide victory in the 1906 General Election?
the election had primarily been about voting on free trade and the conservatives were split whilst the Liberals presented a united front (they knew where they stood on free trade, and the Conservatives failed to maintain the working class vote
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Who were the LRC and when did they first emerge and how?
Labour Representation Committee - 1900 - out of the trade union movement
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When did they become an actual Party?
They became the Labour Party in 1906
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What was the 1903 Lib Lab pact?
An agreement between the LRC and the Liberal Party, the LRC gave the Liberals funding and in return the Liberals would give the LRC seats in parliament
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What was the Conservative Blockade?
Conservative still had the first past the post so they majority of the House of Lords were conservative candidates so they refused to pass through any Liberal Legislation especially if it was to do with taxation of the rich
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What kinda of Legislation were blocked?
1908 Land Bills act which would have given the Liberal knowledge of who owned what property/land so they could be taxed accordingly
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Why were they rejected?
The majority of the Conservative were land/property owning so they would not want to be taxed
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What did this mean for the Liberals?
They started to lose by-elections, they lost support because they were not doing any of the things they had promised that they would, most of their legislation was blocked by the House of Lords and people got fed up of there be no change
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What were some of Lloyd Georges possible motives for the Peoples Budget
That it was a planned clash with the Lords, 'To hit the rich', To raise money for defence and welfare reforms, or that the finance bill was innocent and that a clash was not planned
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Give evidence to prove that it was a planned clash
The House of Lords had never before rejected a finance bill, the Liberals had conveniently included a land bill which they knew would upset the lords as land was the thing they were known to love
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Give evidence to prove that it was to raise money for defense and welfare reforms
There was the growing threat of war, and an economic crisis, they needed more money so they could gain naval power
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Give evidence to prove that the finance bill was innocent and that a clash was not planned
The National Insurance act 1911 was needed to help people when they were ill and could not work so they needed money for the budget
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Give evidence to prove that it was to 'hit the rich'
They could not tax the middle class because they needed the vote and they could not tax the working class because they had no money so instead they targeted the rich
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What were the main proposals of the 1909 Peoples Budget?
They wanted to tax the rich people that did not work and they wanted to see what land people owned so that they could tax them
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When was the Peoples Budget rejected?
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What happened in the 1910 General Election?
Liberals and Conservative got the same amount of seats in parliament there was no longer a majority
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What did the Liberals do?
They gained support from Party's like the Irish Nationalists who they promised to help with home rule in return for the support and the Labour Party who they promised to help gain payment of MP's
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When was the Budget passed?
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What was the Parliament Act and when was it passed?
It was an act that meant the House of Lords were never again allowed to reject a budget, the Lords could still amend and reject other bills but if it passed through the house of commons three consecutive times then it became law
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What was the Parliament Act and when was it passed?
There was to be a general election every 5 years instead of every 7 so people could vote more regularly, it was passed in 1911
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What were the 4 challenges to the Liberal government/state
Trade Union Unrest, wealthy men angry at Lloyd Georges budget, Irish threatening violence over home rule and suffragettes anger at government not giving women the right to vote
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Who were the Suffragettes and who were the Suffragists, what did they stand for
The suffragists were the NUWSS (National Union of Womens Suffrage Society) the WSPU (Womens Social and Political Union) were the suffragettes, WSPU believe they would only get the vote through militancy, NUWSS were peaceful
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Who was Emily Davidson?
She was a suffragette and was a part of the WSPU, she was killed at a Derby in 1913 on the race track - she became a martyr
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In what ways did the WSPU militancy hinder the suffragette campaign?
It destroyed most of the good work the NUWSS did, also confirmed government suspicions that women that could not handle the vote and most of the publicity they gained was bad
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In what ways did the WSPU militancy help the suffragette campaign?
It made the government constantly aware of the campaign, it unified women and stressed the cause
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In 1906-1908 what was the government reaction to the suffragette movement?
It was ambivalent
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Why was it ambivalent?
They were rejecting suffragette bills, banned them from meeting in public places, stopped them from be able to come to Liberal meetings and they also censored the press so there would not be a major focus on the campaign
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In 1909-1912 what was the government reaction to the suffragette movement?
Government reaction at this point was one of conciliation
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Why was is it one conciliation?
They were reacting in this way because of the increasingly violent campaign it was becoming to dangerous for them to ignore
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In 1913- 1914 what was the government reaction to the suffragette movement?
The government reaction was now forceful- their attempts at what they thought was compromise was not working so they became forceful in their tactics?
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What is an example of this forcefulness?
the 1913 Temporary discharge for Ill-Health (Cat and Mouse Act) saw women released from prison so they could recover and eat an then they would be recaptured and put back into prison
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Why was this temporary discharge needed?
Some women went on hunger strikes within prison and it was bad enough that women were put in prison but if one died in prison there would be an uproar, so they began force feeding, when the public learned this the governments image was damaged
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What was one of Asquith's major reasons for not giving women the vote?
That women operated under personal influence
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In what ways did women's position change from 1851 to 1914?
Legal Rights - Before 1870 a woman's property became her husbands upon marriage, the Marriage woman's property acts in 1870 and 1882 allowed women to have their own property
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In what ways did women's position change from 1851 to 1914?
Education - More elementary schools were founded to help educate girls in the working class, from the late 19th century on wards more women were getting a university education
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In what ways did women's position change from 1851 to 1914?
Employment - most women were employed as domestic servants however increasingly more women got involved in more skilled professions like women doctors.
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What were some of the reasons why women should have the vote?
Women payed rates and taxes have a right to representation like other taxpayers, Britain had grown under a female ruler, If women could be doctors, lawyers and town Councillors they are capable of voting sensibly
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What were some of the reasons why women should not have the vote?
Women having the vote could split families and society as a whole, men who do have the vote would act on behalf of the whole of the community including women and men that could not vote, and the current system worked well - why change it?
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What did the NUWSS campaign involve?
peaceful and law abiding marches, speeches/meetings, petitions, MP lobbying- appealing to certain MP's to gain their support on the vote
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What did the WSPU campaign involve?
Militant and violent actions, chaining themselves to rails, window smashing, arson attacks (burnt Lloyd Georges country house), destroyed works of art (slasher Mary), hunger strikes when taken into prison
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What is an example of suffragette militancy and how did this affect the government?
1910 Black Friday- failure of the conciliation bill saw 300 suffragettes march to the House of Commons in protest, police were said to have handled the women in unacceptable ways- which reflected poorly on the government
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What was the Liberal government reaction to the suffragette campaign?
Asquith was hostile - he refused to give women the vote, the state had other challenges to deal with - Ireland Home Rule the Constitutional Crisis and Trade Union Unrest meant that women's campaign for the vote took a back seat
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When did women finally gain the vote?
1918 the bill became law - Women over the age of 30 could now vote and become MP's
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What were some of the reasons why women were given the vote?
In the war women showed themselves of being capable of doing jobs previously done by men, the fear that women's violence might return after the war was a real threat
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What were some of the reasons why women were given the vote?
The conservatives (Liberals rivals) had been aware for a long while that they had nothing to fear from giving women the vote, soldiers and sailors stationed abroad would not able allowed to vote under the old law - so a new law was needed
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What did New Liberalism stand for?
Freedom and Liberty
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How was this different from Old Liberalism?
New Liberalism viewed society as working together rather then just people as individuals, and rather then the 'laissez faire' ideology of no state intervention they believed the state needed to be involved
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Why did they strongly believe in state intervention?
So that society could be worth more then the sum of its parts
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So what was New Liberalism?
It was the use of state intervention but not to the extent at which the government was giving handouts, it was to make people realize that they needed to help themselves to improve their own way of life with as little help as possible
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Why was the government reluctant to get to involved?
Because then they could be seen as going against their policy of freedom and liberty
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How did New Liberalism develop?
New economic ideas about taxation and national efficiency, key members of the Liberal Party pushing the idea forward like Lloyd George and Churchill and Poverty, the surveys done by people like Hobson were evidence of the need for state intervention
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Why couldn't New Liberalism be seen as an important reason for the Liberal victory at the 1906 election?
Because no leading members of the cabinet were committed to New Liberalism there was no new Liberal policies and little social reform
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Whats a coalition?


When two party's join together

Card 3


Who was Salisbury?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Who was he replaced by and when?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why were the Liberals out of power in the years 1886-1906?


Preview of the front of card 5
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