'Mid Tudor Crisis' Elizabethan Later Years (1588-1603)

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Chapter 11


  • 1588 (July) Defeat of Spanish Armada
  • 1591 (August) Sir Robert Cecil becomes a Privy Councillor
  • 1593 (June) Plague in London
  • 1595 (June) Riots by apprentices + others in London
  • 1596 (July) Cecil made principal private secretary to the queen ; Very poor harvest - food riots in Kent

              (November) Oxforshire Rising

  • 1598 (August) Lord Burghley dies aged 77

              Tyrone defeats English troops

  • 1599 (March) Essex to Ireland

              (September) Essex back from Ireland without permission

  • 1601 (February) Essex's Rebellion ; Execution of Essex
  • 1603 (March) Surrender of Tyrone ; Elizabeth dies

War with Spain

  • She avoided the war
  • Financial implications
  • Potential defeat by Europe's premier power
  • Drained resources
  • War weariness was common
  • James I made peace with Spain

War + English Politics

  • Debate about the Centimation of the war in the Privy Council
  • Burghly + Robert Cecil = determined to keep the Netherlands secure
  • The rivalry: Burghley + Essex (very intense) (every decision was affected)
  • Essex: Success in 1596 at Cadiz + national hero + very popular with younger sons of the gentry
  • Elizabeth: was not really using policies during the war; relied on advisors

The Armada's impact on England

  • Elizabeth managed to postpone a conflict deemed as inevitable
  • Opportunities for the display of valor + military skill + English navel improvement
  • Philip 99 became bankrupt in 1596
  • She feared financial trouble
  • Uneasiness in the atmosphere
  • Money was consumed at a fast rate

The Dr Lopez Case

  • In 1594 a plot by Dr Lopez to supposedly poison the queen was uncovered
  • He was a Portuguese Jew who was supposedly in league with Spain

Issues of Succession

  • Spanish princess Isabella's claim to the throne


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