1. Discuss media influences on prosocial behaviour (9 marks and 16 marks):
For AO1 you should provide explanations of how media can influence young people e.g. exposure to prosocial behaviour- content analysis (Greenberg, 1980), acquisition of prosocial behaviour – Bandura and SLT, developmental factors- Eisenberg,1990 and parental mediation- Austin (sesame street) and Rosenkoetter. Include the four behavioural effects identified in Mare’s research- altruism, self-control, positive interaction and anti-stereotyping.
For AO2 you should use evidence in support and/or contradiction of the explanations e.g. Woodard, Johnston & Ettema and Rubenstein & Sprafkin and Valkenburg. Include prosocial effects of other media and prosocial versus antisocial effects.
2. Discuss media influences on antisocial behaviour (9 marks and 16 marks):
For AO1 refer to explanations for media influences on antisocial behaviour – Huesmann & Moise’s five ways: observational learning and imitation – Philips (natural experiment), cognitive priming, desensitisation, lowered physiological arousal and justification (explain at least three ways). Include the Paik & Comstock meta-analysis and the St. Helena natural experiment by Charlton, 2000.
For AO2 provide more supporting and contradictory evidence for the explanations e.g. Josephson, Cumberbatch, Zillman – excitation-transfer model and Feshbach & Singer – cathartic effects. Include methodological issues – demand characteristics in Bandura’s study, strengths & weaknesses of the natural experiment in St. Helena and gender biases. You could finish with the Belson study which concludes that media are unreasonably the focus of blame for violent behaviour.
3. Discuss research (theories and /or studies) into the effects of videogames/computer games on young people (9 marks and 16 marks):
This was a part question in January, so focus more on the others. Here you need to explain the various methods of research in the area: experimental studies, correlation studies, longitudinal studies and meta-analyses. You must give some examples of studies and their findings e.g. Gentile & Stone and Anderson. You also need to give explanations of the link between video games and aggression – the ‘bi-directional model, desensitisation and interactive versus passive video games.
For the evaluation you need to give strengths and weaknesses for each method. (In the January exam the Q asked for weaknesses only). Also, refer to other methodological limitations like publication bias, problems distinguishing between ‘violent’ and ‘non-violent’ games. Include Weber’s study –hard evidence for the relationship between video games and aggression, the importance of individual differences and the Byron report.
4. Discuss the relationship between persuasion and attitude change (9 marks and 16 marks):
For the outline you should describe the two models of persuasion and attitude change: the Hovland-Yale model and the elaboration-likehihood by Petty & Cacioppo. For the Hovland –Yale remember the ‘who (source) says what (message) to whom (audience)’. Include characteristics of effectiveness for source factors (Bochner & Insko), message factors (McGuire) and audience factors (McGuire). For the elaboration-likelihood model describe the two routes (central- Petty &…