- was prevalent until the end of 19th century. It begins by asking what things are good and what things are bad, and what kind of behaviour is right and wrong.
- decides how people ought to act, how moral choices should be made and apply.
- these decisions may come from an established group or culture, such as the Christian tradition, or they may be based on some philosophical or ideological way of thinking of thinking.
- this is the traditional way of doing ethics,
- a normative ethical question question would be 'Is sex before marriage right?'.
- describes and compares the different ways in which people and societies have answered moral questions.
- can be described as moral sociology or moral anthropology.
- example: 'what do the Christian and Muslim traditions believe about sex before marriage?'
- explores the meaning and function of moral language.
- examples: 'What do we mean when we…