1) Cultural deprivation refers to lacking the mainstream culture's knowledge, attitudes, values, language and abilities that are important in educational success. This is more common in working-class children.
2) Educational policies that may have contributed to class differences in achievement include:
- publishing exam league tables
- publishing Ofsted reports
- voucher schemes for school/nursery places
- formula funding- equal finance for each pupil taught
- open enrolment, allowing schools to recruit as many pupils as possible
- schools competing for pupils
- schools opting out of local authority control
- encouraging a diversity of school types (specialist schools, academies, faith schools, cooperatives, free schools, etc)
- business sponsorship of schools
- private (fee-paying) schools.
- the tripartite system/ the eleven-plus exam/Butler Act/1944 Act
- fees for higher education.
3)’Outline some of the ways in which factors outside the education system have resulted in improved educational achievement for girls.’
Intro: mention the gender gap. E.g. girls score higher on all baseline tests starting school, do better in Key Stages 1-3, have the gender gap at ~10% in GCSEs, get an average of 295 points in A levels compared to 274 for boys, and also get more distinctions in vocational courses.
➡Feminism has helped to raise girl's expectations, ambitions and self-esteem. Angela McRobbie- girls magazines, soap operas and current affairs programmes in the 90's contained more assertive and independent women than in the 70's. This inspires girls to follow these role-models through putting effort into learning the necessary qualifications
➡Family changes since the 70's, including the increased divorce rate, more cohabitations, more lone-parent and smaller families means that there are more financially independent women that provide better role models for girls. To be financially independent, they need to earn income from a good job; to get a good job, they must achieve high through putting in effort for necessary qualifications
➡Changes in women's employment (e.g. #1970 Equal Pay Act. #1975 Sex Discrimination Act. #70% being employed in 2007 compared to 47% in 1959. #more women in highly paid professional management jobs) means that girls see their future in employment (need qualifications), not just as housewives (which requires less educational achievement)
➡Sue Sharpe- girls interviewed in the 70's prioritised love, marriage, husbands and children, whereas girls in the 90's saw their future as independent women with careers
➡Becky Francis- most girls she interviewed had high aspirations requiring educational qualifications
➡Whereas boys typically are encouraged to go outside, girls stay in their bedrooms and communicate- practising the communication skills needed in school. Also prepares girls for study groups which can…