Human Lifespan Development

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The life staages are:

  • Infancy (0-2 yrs)
  • Early Childhood (3-8 yrs)
  • Adolescence (9-18 yrs)
  • Early Adulthood (19-45 yrs)
  • Middle Adulthood (46-65 yrs)
  • Later Adulthood (65+ yrs)


The main features of puberty in females are: 

  • Menstruation (period starts)
  • Pubic hair grows
  • Breasts develop
  • Hips broaden 

The main features of puberty in males are:

  • Voice deepens 
  • pubic hair
  • facial hair
  • Shoulders broaden
  • Testies drop

MIddle Adulthood: menopause

The menopause typically happens in females between the ages of 45 and 55, although it can be sooner or later. The main physical features are:

  • Mood swings
  • Period stops
  • Hot sweat

Later Adulthood: ageing

  • Hair greying or loss
  • Weaker muscles and stiffer joints
  • Thinner and less elastic skin, so wrinkles
  • Loss of mobility and height
  • Bones become more brittle
  • loss of stamina, suppleness and strength

Difference between growth and development

Growth: Increase in height, weight or size.

Development: Changes to how we do things - more complex as we get older.

What is development delay?

It is when a  child/infant is unable to learn skills or has missed a milestone which can affect his/her main areas of development. 

Causes of development delay:

Biological (nature):  genetic or chromosome abnormalities, illness and disease

Social (nurture): life experienceing or parenting

What is the difference between skill and ability?

Skill: being able to undertake practical tasks to at least a certain standard, a special ability or a talent developed through training or experience

Ability: means natural or acquired talents to be able to do something

Education and culure:

  • Education affects childrens PIES
  • Children benefit from larger playspaces and better equipment; this improves coordination and gross motor skills. 
  • Children learn to mix and socialize
  • Staff promote cognitive development: introducing concepts like numbers and shapes
  • Fine motor skills: playing with dough, painting and by writing
  • Promote self confidence and esteem
  • Esteem linked to positive education experiences 
  • Develop a sense of belonging 
  • Stimulating activities like jiqsaw, modellling and books improve development. 

Expected life events: starting school, marraige and retirement.

Starting school: positives.

  • Learning to grow socially and mentally
  • Development of fine motor skills
  • Learning new things


  • Risk of bullying 
  • Feeling emotionally isolated
  • Pressure from parents, teachers and peers

Marraige: positives:

  • A fresh start
  • Ability to grow and develop on the way you live
  • Learn new things from your partner. 


  • Need to adapt to a smaller social circle 
  • May feel lonely
  • may feel isolated if not continuing to socialize 

Unexpected life events:



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