The Economic Position in 1928
- Production on farms and in factories fell as a result of WW1, the Revolution and Civil War.
- Despite improvements caused by the NEP in the 1920s, Russia was still economically backward compared to the USA, Britain, France and Germany.
- Stalin decided to take drastic measures.
Why did Stalin collectivise farming?
- Inefficient farming - peasants had siezed land during the revolution and most farms were small. They used backward farming methods- little machinery was in use.Once they had themselves, the peasants had little to sell the feed the citites.
- Some peasants were doing better than others; they grew enough to make profit and buy more land, which was allowed under the NEP. These successful peasants were nicknamed 'Kulaks'.
- However, there wasn't enough Kulaks to produce sufficent food to feed the growing population of the cities. By 1929 there were food shortages.
- The NEP allowed private ownership of land and selling crops to make a profit, which contradicted the basic principles of Communism
What was Collectivisation?
- Stalin wanted to force all the farmers onto collective farms. A collective farm was created by joining together land of many small peasant farms, and it was owned by the government.
- The peasants worked the land together as a co-operative.
- The government provided machinery.
- Each farm had to produce a certain amount of food, which was then sold to the government for a low price- any extra could be kept by peasants or sold.
- Many peasants, especially the Kulaks, didn't want to…