Russia section 3 and 4


How did Stalin + the other members of the Triumvir

¨      Stalin accused him of disloyalty to the Bol party as he had once been a Menshevik + disagreed with Lenin over the timing over the revolution.

¨      Stalin portrayed Trotsky’s opposition to NEP as a betrayal to Lenin’s leadership.

¨      Trotsky resigned as Commissar for War 1925 –political influence declined, no longer had a power base within the party (1926 expelled from Politburo, 1927 expelled from Communist party, 1928 exiled to Kazakhstan, 1929 exiled from the Soviet Union)

¨      Trotsky also didn’t attend Lenin’s funeral to lead the funeral march and give the funeral speech claiming that Stalin gave him false information.

¨      Trotsky was also arrogant + unpopular with the other Bol leaders.

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Views within the party

Views of the Trotsky + Left Wing: Opposed to NEP as it compromised the ideals of socialism + led to the development of the ‘capitalist’ class of Kulaks + Nepmen (seen as socially divisive).
-Trotsky believed in world revolution (workers of the world united + revolted against capitalism).

What were the views of Stalin and the Right Wing: Supported NEP (produced much needed food, stable economic + social environment) – also loyal to Lenin.
Rejected Trotsky “world revolution” as a high risk strategy liable to provoke foreign retaliation + alienate other world powers.
Instead introduced “Socialism in one country” – the SU must modernise fast to make it strong enough to defend itself from the capitalist countries of the West.

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Show Trials

What were the show trials?
Where 16 “Old Bolsheviks” whom has been leaders of the revolution in 1917 were tried for treason + the assassination of Politburo member Kirov (murder possibly on Stalin’s orders) all confessed although they were innocent. They were all shot. 
40,000 were arrested by the OGPU as suspects for trial, each trial lasted for a few minutes and all were found “guilty”

Significance of the show trials:
-The accused were reported as having a trial and normal people were unaware of how unfair the show trials were. The accused usually confessed (this was also reported).
The trials suggested that there was a danger to the revolution within the SU – made them more likely to unite behind Stalin against it.The trials enforced fear + made people less likely to be critical.

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What was the purpose of the purges and what was th

-The purges were supposed to clean out enemies of the state and produce a country where everyone was dedicated to the USSR.

Enforced fear + obedience but also gave rise to resentment.

-People no longer trusted the justice system, Killed 1 mill, imprisoned 7 mill, removed skilled workers from factories reducing factory production.

-Produced a govt. almost totally created by+loyal to Stalin. Country+army was weaker as a result.

-State lost useful people at all levels: 1 mill of 3 mill part members + 93 of the 139 General Committee members + 13 of 15 top generals in the red army.

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What were different types of Propaganda used by St

-State controlled the radio + newspapers (had to produce Stalinist propaganda)
Censorship prevented anything anti-Soviet (Anti-Stalin) being published

-Propaganda songs, poems + books were written
Propaganda sent officials to give talks throughout the USSR using propaganda films etc. to stress how everyone needed to work together for Stalin + the USSR.

-Banners + posters were on buildings, shop windows, trains + trams to promote every policy (5 year plans, collectivisation etc.
Foreign visitors had to travel under state supervision + were taken to places (homes, factories + collective farms) designed to give the impression that the workers had better lives than they did.

-Children in schools encouraged to denounce family/friends who were anti-Stalinist- children of enemies of state bullied.

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What did all collective farms have in common?

- Land belonged to state, told  how to farm Commissariat of Agriculture , had to meet production targets for crops
-Told state what their collective needed to feed people & seed for next year. State had to approve

- Peasants couldn’t leave to work in towns. Organised into brigades of families- 80 hectare kolkhoz = 15 families.
- Each person work set no. of days for state (140/year) both on kolkhoz & jobs eg repairing roads. Hours & jobs set by state.
- State provided seed & equipment. Tractors & combine harvesters borrowed from MOTOR & TRACTOR STATIONS (MTS).
-After 1935 peasants got 1 acre of land themselves. State supposed to provide homes, equipment, fuel, clothing, education, welfare. How much varied- visitors taken to good sovkozys.

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