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How did Stalin + the other members of the Triumvir

¨      Stalin accused him of disloyalty to the Bol party as he had once been a Menshevik + disagreed with Lenin over the timing over the revolution.

¨      Stalin portrayed Trotsky’s opposition to NEP as a betrayal to Lenin’s leadership.

¨      Trotsky resigned as Commissar for War 1925 –political influence declined, no longer had a power base within the party (1926 expelled from Politburo, 1927 expelled from Communist party, 1928 exiled to Kazakhstan, 1929 exiled from the Soviet Union)

¨      Trotsky also didn’t attend Lenin’s funeral to lead the funeral march and give the funeral speech claiming that Stalin gave him false information.

¨      Trotsky was also arrogant + unpopular with the other Bol leaders.

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Views within the party

Views of the Trotsky + Left Wing: Opposed to NEP as it compromised the ideals of socialism + led to the development of the ‘capitalist’ class of Kulaks + Nepmen (seen as socially divisive).
-Trotsky believed in world revolution (workers of the world united + revolted against capitalism).

What were the views of Stalin and the Right Wing: Supported NEP (produced much needed food, stable economic + social environment) – also loyal to Lenin.
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Rejected Trotsky “world revolution” as a high risk strategy liable to provoke foreign retaliation + alienate other world powers.
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Instead introduced “Socialism in one country” – the SU must modernise fast to make it strong enough to defend itself from the capitalist countries of the West.

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Show Trials

What were the show trials?
Where 16 “Old Bolsheviks” whom has been leaders of the revolution in 1917 were tried for treason + the assassination of Politburo member Kirov (murder possibly on Stalin’s orders) all confessed although they were innocent. They were all shot. 
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40,000 were arrested by the OGPU as suspects for trial, each trial lasted for a few minutes and all were found “guilty”

Significance of the show trials:
-The accused were reported as having a trial and normal people were unaware of how unfair the show trials were. The accused usually confessed (this was also reported).
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The trials suggested that there was a danger to the revolution within the SU – made them more likely to unite behind Stalin against it.The trials enforced fear + made people less likely to be critical.

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What was the purpose of the purges and what was th

-The purges were supposed to clean out enemies of the state and produce a country where everyone was dedicated to the USSR.

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Enforced fear + obedience but also gave rise to resentment.

-People no longer trusted the justice system, Killed 1 mill, imprisoned 7 mill, removed skilled workers from factories reducing factory production.

-Produced a govt. almost totally created by+loyal to Stalin. Country+army was weaker as a result.

-State lost useful people at all levels: 1 mill of 3 mill part members + 93 of the 139 General Committee members + 13 of 15 top generals in the red army.

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What were different types of Propaganda used by St

-State controlled the radio + newspapers (had to produce Stalinist propaganda)
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Censorship prevented anything anti-Soviet (Anti-Stalin) being published

-Propaganda songs, poems + books were written
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Propaganda sent officials to give talks throughout the USSR using propaganda films etc. to stress how everyone needed to work together for Stalin + the USSR.

-Banners + posters were on buildings, shop windows, trains + trams to promote every policy (5 year plans, collectivisation etc.
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Foreign visitors had to travel under state supervision + were taken to places (homes, factories + collective farms) designed to give the impression that the workers had better lives than they did.

-Children in schools encouraged to denounce family/friends who were anti-Stalinist- children of enemies of state bullied.

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What did all collective farms have in common?

- Land belonged to state, told  how to farm Commissariat of Agriculture , had to meet production targets for crops
-Told state what their collective needed to feed people & seed for next year. State had to approve

- Peasants couldn’t leave to work in towns. Organised into brigades of families- 80 hectare kolkhoz = 15 families.
- Each person work set no. of days for state (140/year) both on kolkhoz & jobs eg repairing roads. Hours & jobs set by state.
- State provided seed & equipment. Tractors & combine harvesters borrowed from MOTOR & TRACTOR STATIONS (MTS).
-After 1935 peasants got 1 acre of land themselves. State supposed to provide homes, equipment, fuel, clothing, education, welfare. How much varied- visitors taken to good sovkozys.

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