Henry VIII



• THOMAS CROMWELL: H’s chief minister 1533-40. Like Wolsey he as seen as a man who would do anything to strengthen his power and influence in govt. = most prominent man in the dissolution of the monasteries. 1532-6 Cromwell gained numerous offices: - Clerk of the Hanaper (1532), Chancellor of the Exchequer (1533). Master of the Jewels (1534), Principal secretary (1534) Master of the rolls (1534-) and Lord of the Privy Seal (1536) Very influential in Europe – made alliances with the Northern German Princes due to concern about Britain’s safety – a lot of these alliances and policies fell through. These failures in foreign policy also lead to his enemies having ammunition to attack him with. Norfolk accused C of imposing Protestantism onto England – via 6 articles. He also introduced Catherine to the royal court – knowing H would fall for her. April 181540 C = great chamberlain of the household and so late April Cromwell = in favor with H – but June 10 executed 28

ARCHBISHOP CRANMER: (2 reformation and archbishop of C during H8th and Ed VI’s reign and for a short time M1. He supported Royal supremacy. As archbishop he = responsible for establishing the first doctrinal and liturgical structures of the reformed Church of England. C = tried for heresy and treason after M1 accession – imprisoned for 2 years – reconciled himself to CC after pressure, but later recanted and was willing to die a heretic to C and a martyr to P.


• EDWARD SEYMOUR (SOMERSET) Jane Seymour’s brother. Rose to power 1536 due to the marriage. 1537 = member of the P council and Earl of Hertford. Next 10 years worked strongly in the military. P council elected him lord protector- until Ed = 18. 1552 executed.

THOMAS SEYMOUR (BARON OF SUDELEY) brother of Jane Seymour, His rise began with his sister's marriage in May 1536. He was made a gentleman of the bedchamber and employed on important diplomatic and military missions. In 1544 he was appointed master-general of ordnance for life and lord admiral. As soon as his nephew became king in 1547 he was created a peer and given the Garter. Within months of Henry 8ths death he had married his widow Catherine Parr, to his brother's indignation. On her death in childbirth, he seems to have aimed at marriage with Princess Elizabeth, whom he had certainly treated with familiarity. But in January 1549 he was accused of conspiring against his brother, of whom he was envious. He was said to have tried to suborn the young king with lavish presents and urged him to exert his authority. Condemned by attainder, he was executed on Tower Hill.

• DUKE OF NORFOLK: He married (1495) a daughter of Edward IV and thus became brother-in-law to Henry VII. He fought (1513) against the Scots at Flodden and became (1514) earl of Surrey when his father was made duke of Norfolk. After his first


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