- 1900 - Second German Naval law passed which provides plans for German naval expansion over the following 20 years.
- 1902 - British alliance with Japan.
- 1904 - British Entente agreement with France.
- 1905/06 - The First Moroccan Crisis
- 1906 - Britain launched the HMS Dreadnought.
- 1907 - British Entente agreement with Russia
- 1911 - Second Moroccan crisis
- 1912 - The First Balkans War
- 1912 - March - Naval Bill - proposing further naval expansion.
- 1912 - December - 'War Council'
- 1913 - Treaty of London - ends the first Balkans War.
- 1913 - Second Balkans war breaks out.
- 1914 - 28 June - Heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by a Serbian terrorist from the group called the Black Hand.
- 1914 - 18 July - Austria declared war on Serbia (war begins...)
ALLIANCES AND WAR PLANS:
Otto Von Bismarck created a system of alliances to protect the new German empire - established in 1870 following the Franco-Prussian war.
- At the heart of this was the aim to isolate France who wanted revanche for the loss of Alsace-Lorraine.
- the DREIKAISERBUND of 1882 - was an understanding of how the peace could be maintained between Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany.
- 1882 - The Triple Alliance between Austria-Hungary, Italy, Germany which was a defensive alliance between the three.
HOWEVER - The assession of WIlhelm II to the throne and Bismarck's departure marked a change in foreign policy. Wilhelm embarked on his 'new course'
- He refused to renew the Reassurance Treaty between Germany and Russia which guaranteed each country that they would not attack each other.
- Field Marshall Sclieffen began to work on a plan in which Germany could fight a war on two fronts (Russia and France) during his time in office 1891-1905.
- This plan consisted of Germany knocking out France first then focusing on Russia - however, it relied on very slow mobilisation on the part of Russia and France and unrealistically estimated this war to take only 6 weeks.
GERMANY AND BRITAIN
Kaiser Wilhelm's relationship with Britain was complex - He was the grandson of Queen Victoria - However, on many occassions he challenged Britain.
- FLOTTENPOLITIK - a series of Navy laws were a direct challenge to Britain. Their impact was to create a naval race between the two nations. in 1906 - Britain launched the HMS Dreadnought which prompted Germany into massive naval expenditure.
- Britain made attempts to form a Anglo-German alliance - however the German foreign office decalred britain would have to commit to the Triple Alliance - Bulow calculated that Britain would not find allies elsewhere
- HOWEVER - Britain ended its isolation by forming allies
- 1902 - Japan
- 1904 - Anglo-French entente agreement
- 1907 - Anglo-Russian entente agreement.
- This left Germany over reliant on Austria-Hungary.
LIMITS TO WELTPOLITIK
1.What was Weltpolitik? - (world politics) -
- building up of German armed forces
- global expansion.
However, by 1900 the opportunities for Weltpolitik were minimal because most of the territory had been seized by other European powers.