Hard engineering is is a method of river flood management which requires construction work.
Embankments- Embankments are raised banks along the river. Earth embankments provide habitats for plants and animals and they also allow to be used for pedestrians. Although, concrete embankments spoil the view, which is a disadvantage.
Channelisation- Channelisation is where the river bed is widened or deepened to allow it to carry more water. Channelisation usually last longer but altering the river channel can cause a greater risk of flooding further downstream.
Flood relief channels- This is where the course of the river is altered, diverting the water away from the settlements. This is usually safer for people who live near the…