GCSE Food & Nutrition - Carbohydrate Notes

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Carbohydrates 

Functions;

Energy - important source of protien as it acts as a protein sparer.

Protein sparer - ensures that protein can be used for its primary functions.

Chemistry;

All carbohydrates contain - CARBON, HYDROGEN, HYDROGEN 

Sources;

Produced mainly by plants during the process of photosynthesis.

Carbon dioxide + Water ----> Carbohydrate + Oxygen

Classification of Carbohydrates;

Monosaccharides = simple sugars, common base units from which other carbohydrates are built, and are chemically sugars.

There are 3 main monosaccharides;

Fructose = fruit sugar, mostly found in fruit/plant juices/honey

Glucose = form of carbohydrate body uses for energy. All other carbohydrates are converted into glucose during digestion. Glucose is circulated around blood and delivered to cells.

Glucose is found in; 

Ripe fruits, vegetables, commercially in powdered, liquid or tablet form. 

It provides a fast source of energy.

Galactose = found in milk of mammals, where it forms part of lactose.

Disaccharides = double sugars, compressed of 2 monosaccharide units joined.

There are 3 main disaccharides;

Sucrose = formed from 1 unit of glucose + 1 unit of fructose, mostly used in cookery, obtained from refined sugar cane/beet + some fruits or vegetables.

Lactose = formed

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