Food Safty and Hygiene

PHYSICAL CONTAMINATION(occur in stages in food production)

CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION(unhygienic area in storage so chemicals, pesticides)

MOULD(fungi grow on surface of plants, travel in air, can be used to make food, some produce myotoxins)

VIRUSES(cause disease as destroy living cells, carried by humans, animals, water, sewage, birds)

BACTERIA( single celled, found in; water, air, soil, people, animals. SPOILGE BACTERIA(over time will cause decomposition, affect quality and safety) PATHOGENIC BACTERIA(cause food poisoning, may be igns of spoilage)

FOOD BORNE DISEASE( illness caused by eating food contaminated)

EATING PATHOGENIC BACTERIA(bacteria entre stomach and multiply)

EATING A TOXIN(waste product of bacteria, SYMPTOMS; diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach aches, headaches, sweating)

SOURCES- RAW FOOD(meat, poultry, eggs, chellfish. bacteria live in gut of healthy animals, during slaughter can contaminate the flesh. processing methods can spread through meat)

PEOPLE(on the skin, in wounds, nose and gut. poor hygiene practise e.g. sneezing, smoking, coughing, not washing hands)

PESTS(rodents, insects. they feed and live in dirt, water, faeces. if pest gets near food can transfer bacteris. some have pathogens in their body which is spread in droppings and saliva)

ANIMALS(cattle, sheep, goats can carry pathogens in their intestines)

AIR AND DUST(can be carried in air so food should be covered)

WATER(poor quality drinking water ca carry bacteria, water in food premises must be potable(fit for drinking))

SOIL(bacteria and spores can live in water, unwashed roots on veg)

FOOD WASTE(needs to be disposed of correctly, food waste attracts pests carrying bacteria)

TYPES- CAMPLOBACTER(found in intestines in animals and birds, contaminated through droppings and saliva,lso contaminated pets so needed hand washing not many needed for infection, found in raw poultry, contaminated water. avoid storage of raw and cooked foods, different work surface)

SALMONELLA(found in intestines of farm animals and sometimes humans. Veg, fruit, shellfish can be contaminated by contact with manure, soil or sewage in water, pets and rodents can carry.bacteria can be excreted and direct food contamination. Dehydration, diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, stomach pain)

LISTERIA(found in soil, sewage, water, animals and people. toxic form can lead to blood poisoning. it can grow at low temps. likely foods to be contaminated; cooked meats, smoked fish, cook-chill meals)

ECOLI(found in intestines of animals and humans. only small number cause toxins to cause illness. found in raw/undercooked meats, unpasteurised milk, fruit juices, dairy products, raw veg. can survive refrigeration, freezers. thorough cooking will kick bacteria. Symptoms are; diarrhoea sometimes death)

CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGES( found in healthy animals and people. sources in raw meat, soil, sewage, manure. when eaten produces a toxin. Spores can survive at low temp cooking, reproduce when in low heat. Symptoms are stomach ache, vomitting, diarrhoea)

STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS( found on human skin nd mucus linings on body. Can cause wound and blood infections. Most strains are killed by anti-biotics. Produces a toxin to create serve vomitting, diarrhoea and stomach pains. Cross-contamination occurs if infected person handles food)

BACILLUS CEREUS(found in soil, cereals, and dust. Small number needed for illness. bacteria can for resillience to spores and survive cooking. Found in rice and pasta dishes…




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