4.10 Understand that chemical reactions in which heat given out are described as exothermic and those in which heat energy is taken in are endothermic.
- In an exothermic reaction heat is given out. Because bonds are made which gives out energy.
- In a endothermic reaction heat is taken in. Because bonds are Broken which requires energy.
Breaking bonds - Endothermic
Making bonds - Exothermic
4.11 Describe simple calorimetry experiements for reactions such as combusion, displacement, dissolving and neutralisation in which heat energy changes can be calucated from measured temperature changes.
Combustion Apparatus - Measure the Temperatur of Water at the ed and beginning to fidn the difference in temperature (caliometry)
4.11 Calculate Molar Enthalpy Change from Heat Energy Change
ΔH is measured in J/mol or kJ/mol.
- ΔH = molar enthalpy change
- T = temperature increase or decrease caused by the reaction
- mass of H2O = mass of water in grams; (we assume 10ml is 10g)
- 4.2J/g C = specific heat capacity of water
To work our energy change use the following equation -
Energy transferred = mass of water heated × specific heat capacity of water × temperature rise
Bond energy calculations
You can calculate the energy change in a reaction using average bond energies. Bond energy is the amount of energy needed to break one mole of a particular bond.
To calculate bond energy
- Add together the bond energies for all the bonds in the reactants – this is the ‘energy in’.
- Add together the bond energies for all the bonds in the products – this is the ‘energy out’.
- Calculate the energy change = energy in – energy out.
Worked example – an exothermic reaction
Hydrogen and chlorine react to form hydrogen chloride gas:
H−H + Cl−Cl → 2 × (H−Cl)
BondBond Energy (kJ/mol) H−H 436 Cl−Cl 243 H−Cl 432
- Energy in = 436 + 243 = 679 kJ/mol
- Energy out = 2 × 432 = 864 kJ/mol
- Energy change = in – out = 679 – 864 = –185 kJ/mol
The energy change is negative, showing that energy is released to the surroundings in an exothermic reaction.
ΔH = ΔT x mass of H2O (g) x 4.2 / number of moles
ΔH is the symbol that represents the amount of energy lost or gained in a reaction.
+ΔH is endothermic (because it gains heat)