the papacy was not secure & reform ideas imerged; spirtual (morality of the church) and structual (creating greater consistency with regional & central churches) reforms aimed to restore the papacy to the pinnacle of power

reformers were monastic (relating to the monastry) & thought society had a god given function to perform (ex. fighting for the church).

The fundamental problem lay with the capacity of  the papacy to spiritualise in a society dominated by war & anarchy

INVESTITURE CONTEST: a conflict between secular & religious powers over a dispute between Gregory VII & Henry IV about who should control the appointment of bishops. It led to nearly 50yrs of civil war in Germany. Gregory attempted to jusifty the use of war to protect the church via scholars (ex St


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