Sex V Gender
'Sex' bio. and physio. characteristics that define m and w
'Gender' socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for m and w
'Transgender' people whos gender identity, expresson or behaviour is diff. from those typically associated with their assigned sex at birth.
Crime and Gender
Women commit fewer and less serios offences, disist from crime more quickly and have shorter criminal 'careers'
Men committ crime at higher rates than women, are involved in more serious and violence offending and are more prone to recidivism.
Men and Crime: The 'masculinity turn' considered the relatonship between m and crime by explicitly foregrounding masculinity. Research focused on male involvement in activities eg. street crime, violent crime, drugs, alcohol, sexual offences etc.
The sociology of masculinity- Masculinities, Raewyn Connell 1995
- Masculinities' not the same as 'men' but about gender relations
- diff. patterns between diff. men, which changes over time
- masculinities are multiple, and are in relation to w and other m
- introduced idea of hegemonic and subordinated masc.
- highlighted certain masc. tendencies to use violence, partic. against women
James Messerschmidt- applied Connell's framework to the study of crime in Masculinities and Crime (1993)
-an attempt to critique criminology's masc. past and develop a new way of thinking
-masc. as a social construct or accomplishment- men have to constantly…