- Created by: AimeeLouiseB
- Created on: 22-03-21 12:20
THE SOCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE BY ETHNICITY, GENDER AND SOCIAL CLASS
GENDER AND CRIME
- At all stages of the criminal justice system women are less likely to be convicted than men.
- Men are three times more likely to be taken to court and convicted. Men are five times more likely to be arrested.
- Men are 19 times more likely to be in prision.
- In 2012 the highest number of female offenses were for shoplifting- 45%.
- Argues that officials in the criminal justice system are more likely to let women off as suspects or to punish them less severly.
- This is the idea of 'chivalry' or that men are socialised to be softer and protective towards women.
- Roe and Ashe:
- Self report studies suggest that the official stats for female offending are unrepresentitive.
- 5% of men and 3% of women were classed as frequent offenders- however official statistics present that men are 4 times more likely than women to commit crimes- therfore women can get away with crime more easily.
- Graham and Bowling:
- Looked at self report studies and found that although men were more likely to commit crimes the differences between males and females where not as wide as presented by stats.
- 1987 criminal stats showed a leniancy towards female offenders.
- Box: reviewed self report studies and found that although there was some leniancy towards females- most did not. Therefore the stats could be considered mostly inaccurate.
- 'Double deviance': courts are imposing more serious sentances on women than men for less serious sentances.
- Hedderman: rates of female imprisionment have been rising througout the 2000s.
Bias against women:
- Feminist arguement that women are biased against the criminal justice system.
- At **** trials women's complaints are not taken seriously and often the female ended up being questioned on their credibility/ sexual history.
- Women being trafficked as sex workers are often not treated with respect by the authorities and are commonly deported.
Double standards in the criminal justice system:
- The system is gendered, so males and females experiance the system differently.
- Women are seen as 'double deviants' when they deviate from the norms in behaviour associated with femininity- as they have broken the laws of society as well as commiting a crime.
- Women will be treated differently based on how they are seen and percieved.
- Gender played a part in deciding whether to reprimand women into custody.
- Final decisions often made on gender linked moral judgements on the 'worth' of the individual.
- The differences in sentancing should not always be seen as biased.
- Men and women can be affected differently by prision. Eg the impact of prision on a women with children would be different to a mane without these responsibilities.
- Increasing crime rate for women can be linked to their freedom from tradition forms of control.
- Female crime cannot be explained in biological terms- the differences between men and women are socially determined and therefore social changes…