What is a disability?
- Lack of function or ability which is present in most people, caused by an impairment.
What is an impairment?
- Long-term or permanent damage to one or more body organs, systems or structures.
The Individual Model of Disability
- Disability is seen as the result of the persons impairment or medical condition.
The Social Model of Disability
- Disability is the disadvantage to people with impairments created by society at large. Society disables people.
- Impairment in the receiving or processing of sensory information. Impairment of vision, hearign, loss of sensation from skin.
- Loss of some basic motor ability
- Disease/damage to nervous system
- Damage/disorder to bones/joints
- Muscle tissue disease/damage
- Osteoarthritis, Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Muscular Dystrophy
- Disabilities associated with cognitive impairments
- Brain Damage, abnormalities in brain structure and development
- Difficulty learning, understanding, social skills, using language
Causes of Impairments
- Genetic factors
- Chromosomal abnormalities
- Birth trauma
- Head, neck or spinal injuries
- Infectious disease
- Lifestyle/age related diseases
- Nutritional effects on foetus
- Inheritance of genes
- Purely genetic disorders are rare
- Usually a combination of genes and environment