Clients with Disabilities - definitions of disability, types of disability and causes of impairments


What is a disability?

- Lack of function or ability which is present in most people, caused by an impairment.

What is an impairment?

- Long-term or permanent damage to one or more body organs, systems or structures.

The Individual Model of Disability

- Disability is seen as the result of the persons impairment or medical condition.

The Social Model of Disability

- Disability is the disadvantage to people with impairments created by society at large. Society disables people.

Sensory Disability

- Impairment in the receiving or processing of sensory information. Impairment of vision, hearign, loss of sensation from skin.

Physical Disability

- Loss of some basic motor ability

- Disease/damage to nervous system

- Damage/disorder to bones/joints

- Muscle tissue disease/damage

- Osteoarthritis, Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Muscular Dystrophy

Learning Disability

- Disabilities associated with cognitive impairments

- Brain Damage, abnormalities in brain structure and development

- Difficulty learning, understanding, social skills, using language

Causes of Impairments

- Genetic factors

- Chromosomal abnormalities

- Birth trauma

- Head, neck or spinal injuries

- Infectious disease

- Lifestyle/age related diseases

- Nutritional effects on foetus

Genetic Factors

- Inheritance of genes

- Purely genetic disorders are rare

- Usually a combination of genes and environment

- An




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