- Phonology involves the rules about the structure and sequence of speech sounds.
- Semantics consists of vocabulary and how concepts are expressed through words.
- Grammar involves two parts. The first, syntax, is the rules in which words are arranged into sentences. The second, morphology, is the use of grammatical markers (indicating tense, active or passive voice etc.).
- Pragmatics involves the rules for appropriate and effective communication. Pragmatics involves three skills:
- using language for greeting, demanding etc.
- changing language for talking differently depending on who it is you are talking to
- following rules such as turn taking, staying on topic.
Around 3 years of age, children begin to use language for all kinds of things. They are not only trying to get things by asking they are talking about past experiences and even beginning to use it to pretend. By preschool (4 ½) they are beginning to understand and use the rules of language to express possession of something, connect thoughts and quantify. There language is becoming more like that of adults.
In elementary school children continue to expand their use of oral language but are also learning to read a write. As children progress through middle school and high school they continue to expand their vocabulary and refining their grammatical skills and write in more complexities as well as continue to develop reading comprehension skills.
Birth to 6 Months
- Vocalization with intonation
- Responds to his name
- Responds to human voices without visual cues by turning his head and eyes
- Responds appropriately to friendly and angry tones
Six to 12 Months
- Uses one or more words with meaning (this may be a fragment of a word)
- Understands simple instructions, especially if vocal or physical cues are given
- Practices inflection
- Is aware of the social value of speech
12 to 18 Months
- Has vocabulary of approximately 5-20 words
- Vocabulary made up chiefly of nouns
- Some echolalia (repeating a word or phrase over and over)
- Much jargon with emotional content
- Is able to follow simple commands
18 To 24 Months
- Can name a number of objects common to his surroundings
- Is able to use at least two prepositions, usually chosen from the following: in, on, under
- Combines words into a short sentence-largely noun-verb combinations (mean) length of sentences is given as 1.2 words
- Approximately 2/3 of what child says should be…