Bruce Tuckman's 1965 - Development Model.


Bruce Tuckman’s model describes how the team members first come together, welcoming, polite and not a little wary, how they descend into conflict while establishing their positions, how the boundaries are eventually and sometime tortuously established and, if all goes well, how the team reaches a place of stability where it can perform to the best of its combined abilities.

The 5 stages of forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning that Bruce Tuckman identified break down as follows:

1. Forming 

Each member of the team focuses on the leader, accepting only the leader’s guidance and authority and maintaining a polite but distant relationship with the others. During this stage the leader must be seen to be open with information and ready to answer the many questions that will come her or his way; boundaries, strengths and weaknesses will be tested, including those of the leader. 

2.  Storming

This is a difficult time for all. Team members are more concerned with the impression they are making than


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