Bruce Tuckman's 1965 - Development Model.


Bruce Tuckman's 1965 - Development Model.

Background Infomation

Dr Bruce Tuckman published his 'Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing' model. 

Published in 1965. 

Added a 5th stage, 'Adjouring' in the 1970's. 

Helps explain th development and behaviour in th team. 

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Bruce Tuckman's 1965 - Development Model.

Why is Tuckman's Model useful?

The model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style. 

Shows a simple way to understand how groups develop. 

Helpful in training people in group work, enabling groups to fulfil their full potential. 

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Bruce Tuckman's 1965 - Development Model.

What are the four stages of team development?

1 - Forming 

2 - Storming 

3 - Norming 

4 - Performing 

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Bruce Tuckman's 1965 - Development Model.

Stage 1 - Forming 

High dependance on the leader for guidence and direction. 

Little agreement on team objectives, other than the ones recieved from the leader. 

Individual roles and responsilities are unclear. 

Leader must always be prepared to answer lots of questions about purpose, objectives and external relationships. 

Processes are often ignored. 

The leader directs. 

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Bruce Tuckman's 1965 - Development Model.

Stage 2 - Storming 

Lack of agreement when making group decisions. 

Lots of team members attempt to establish themselved and their roles.

Cliques and factions form, leads to power struggles. 

Team needs to focus on goals, avoiding becoming distracted by relationships and emotional issues. 

Compromises may be required to enble progress. 

Leader coaches. 

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Bruce Tuckman's 1965 - Development Model.

Stage 3 - Norming 

Agreement and consensus largely forms amounst the team. 

Roles and responsibilities are clean and accepted. 

Big decisions are made by a group agreement. 

Smaller decisions may be delegated to individuals or small teams within the group. 

Commitment and unity are strong. 

The team discusses and develops its processes and working style.

Leader facilitates and enables. 

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Bruce Tuckman's 1965 - Development Model.

Stage 4 - Performing 

Team's increased strategic awareness,now becomes clear why the team is doing what they are doing. 

Shared vision of the team.

A focus on over-achieving goals and the team makes most of the decisions against criteria agreed with the leader. 


Team members look after each other. 

Team requires delegated tasks and projects from the leader. 

Team does not need to be instructed or assisted. 

Leader delegating and overseeing. 

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