Biology AS (1)

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  • starch
  • in plant cells
  • in the form of grains
  • large ammounts of it are present in seeds
  • it is chains of alpha glucose
  • joined by glycosidec bonds formed by condensation reactions
  • it is arranges in helix's and it is unbranched, which make it very compact
  • It is a energy storage
  • Insoluble and so does not draw water into the cell with it and so does not distrud osmosis
  • It is insoluble so does not diffuse out easily
  • When it is hydrolysed it forms alpha glucose and is readily transp[orted and ready for use in respiration
  • Animal starch
  • Mainly present in the liver and in the muschles
  • It is smaller chains which are more highly branched
  • Thus, it is more readily hydrolysed
  • For my respiration
  • major component in cell walls
  • provides ridgity
  • straight unbranched chains run parallel
  • This creates hydrogen bonds forming, overall these hydrogen bond prove to be very stron g
  • They are then grouped to form microfibrils
  • It is made of beta glucose
  • And it inserts an inward pressure to prevent influx of water
  • Lonf thin and numberous
  • Large vacuole that puches chloroplasts and cytoplasm to the edge
  • Numberous number of chloroplasts
  • The pallaside cell's function is to carry out photosynthesis
  • Chloroplasts has a ) a double envolope, this is a double plasma membrane selective of what it allows in and out 
  • The grana , 100 stacks of thylakoids...
  • Thylakopids, contain the photosyntheitic pigment - chlorophyll... FIRST STAGE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • Stroma - second stage of photosynthesis .... it has other features present like starch grains
  • The chloroplasts are apadpted, the grana in the first stage have a large surface area and so this allows for the attachment of chlorophyll, electron carriers
  • The stroma in the second stage
  • contains enzymes needed for the secondf stage of photosynthesis
  • The choloroplasts contain DNA and ribosomes, to manufacture proteins needed for protein synthesis during photosynthesis
  • these are microfibrils of cellulose
  • they are embedded into the matrix
  • Microfibrils add an overall huge amount of strength
  • Middle lamella cements adjacent cells
  • Cellulose wall adds mechanical strength to prevent the cell bursting under pressure of osmotic entry of water
  • It also allows water to pass along it
  • Plant cells have cell walls and cell surface membranes
  • They have a large number of chloroplasts
  • They have a large singular vacuole
  • They use starch for storage
  • Animals
  • only have a cell surface membrane
  • No chloroplasts
  • small vacuole if any scattered…


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