Biology 2.1 Enzymes and Digestion

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Human digestive system made up of long muscular tube and associated glands.

Glands produce enzymes = break down large molecules into small ones for absorption.

Digestion = large molecules hydrolysed by enzymes into small molecules that can be absorbed and assimilated.

Major parts of the digestive system

  • Mouth breaks down food physically by chewing and mixes food with amylase from salivary glands, tongue rolls food into bolus.
  • Oesophagus carries food from the mouth to the stomach - adapted for transport, thick muscular wall.
  • Stomach = muscular sac w/inner layer that produces enzymes, stores and digests food (proteins). 
  • Glands in stomach produce enzymes to digest proteins and produce mucus (prevents stomach digesting itself)
  • Small intestine (duodenum and ileum) = long muscular tube, further digests food.
  • Enzymes produced by walls and glands in small intestine.
  • Inner walls of small intestine = villi and micro villi on epithelial cells --> increase…


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