What I got wrong and why + improved answers
Cells, tissues and organs
- When a phagocyte engulfs a bacterium, it creates a vacuole and secretes digestive enzymes into this vacuole.
- The nucleus contains DNA/RNA and controls the cell's activities. That is better than saying "controls cell activities".
- Blood clotting prevents blood loss pathogens from entering the bodies - "microorganisms" is too vague
- Right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs
- Blood vessel with least oxygen is the vena cava
Digestion and diet
- Bile emulsifies fats and neutralizes digested food from stomach
- sunlight (not 'playing outdoors) boosts vitamin D levels which reduces the chance of rickets
- 'exercise' is not a component of a balanced diet. However, protein, carbs and fats (typically 1 mark each) are.
- Excess fat in a diet can lead to obesity and other problems
- blood vessels clogged
- high blood pressure
- joint damage
Control of internal conditions
- Smaller SA to vol ratio, less heat is lost
- If muscles are kept warm, they can still contract, making them useful
- A arctic penguin's feet are outside its body but the muscles that control them are inside. Feet are controlled by tendons, which have to be strong and not elastic
- When penguins huddle together to keep warm, the obvious advantages are that they keep warm, protect themselves from the elements (primarily cold wind) and decrease the SA:Vol ratio further
Diseases and disorders
- Emphisema is a disease that causes the enlargement of the alveoli, where they lose a large amount of surface area and so results in breathlessness (lung transplant required)
- Coronary failure means the heart can't pump blood at the rate that it is required to (heart transplant required)
- Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which the pancreas can't produce enough insulin to regulate glucose levels in the blood (pancreas transplant)
- Hepatitis is a disease characterized by the inflamation of the liver (liver transplant)
- Poor vision can be fixed / improved with a surgery that involves replacing the cornea.
- In terms of organ donation, clones are better because they're always available, have no complications with relatives and there's no shortage.
- Smoking causes cilia to be damaged (not 'covered')
- Tar contains carcinogens that can…