AQA A-Level Geography Global systems and governance

  • Created by: 12megdyk
  • Created on: 14-06-19 13:53

Globalisation AO1 Revision

Dimensions of Globalisation

Economic:

·         long distance flows of goods, services, capital and the information and perceptions that accompany market exchange.

·         This has been enabled by an increase in free trade, the growth of TNCs and faster, cheaper transport.

·          An example would be the low-wage production in Asia which is then transported to America and Europe.

Environmental:

·         Long distance transport of materials in oceans or the atmosphere that affect human health and well-being.

·         An example would be the depletion of the ozone layer as a result of fossil fuel burning.

Political:

·         Political connections like the military

·         Caused by the growth of western democracies and their influence on poorer countries, the decline of centralised economies.

·         Its characterised by the diffusion of government policy and the development of market economies in former communist states.

Social/cultural:

·         The movement/flows of people, ideas and information.

·         The process is caused by migration, global communication networks and the impact of western culture.

·         An example would be the movement of religion around the world

Flows of;

1.       Information, technology and capital

2.       Products and labour

3.       Services and global marketing

4.       Production, consumption and distribution

Factors of globalisation

Technology, communications, information systems: information can be shared easily and cheaply at the push of a button. The development of mobile phones in LICs has rapidly allowed them to enter the global market and able to trade at a more equal level.

Global financial systems: The growth of online banking as enabled money to be sent across the world immediately. The systems have become linked together that they have become interdependent on each other. For example, the collapse of US house prices in 2007 contributed to the global financial crisis in 2008.

Transport systems: The advancement of technology has enabled transport to be bigger, faster and travel longer distances. This means that even more goods can be transported. The rise of containerisation in the 1960s led to the rise of global goods networks. However, the mass transport network has enabled new threats, like the spread of disease.

Security: As national boundaries have become less of a barrier to more mobile and informed populations, traditional security measures have reduced in significance. Cybersecurity has become more important due to our reliance upon the internet to store information systems. High profile leaks are become more common.

Trade agreements: The World Trade organisation was created in 1994 and oversees 97% of world trade. It provides a forum for negotiations and ensures that trade agreements are obeyed.

Interdependence and its issues

·         Countries have become reliant on each other for economic growth and trade. LICs have also become reliant on HICs for aid which has caused problems in inequality. More recently countries have become reliant on each other for environmental agreements.

·         Unequal flows create inequality. For example, flows of migrants to HICs has

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