Quick summary - Respiration
Respiration is the process by which organisms extract the energy stored in complex molecules and use it to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Aerobic respiration – Oxygen + Glucose ---> Water + Carbon dioxide + ATP
Anaerobic respiration – Glucose ---> Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + ATP
Early stages of respiration occur in the cytoplasm, later stages are restricted to the mitochondria.
Hydrolysis – Losing a phosphate
Phosphorylation – Adding a phosphate back on
Stages of aerobic respiration
There are 4 stages of aerobic respiration:
The splitting of the 6-C glucose molecule into two 3-C pyruvate molecules. It occurs in the cytoplasm of all living cells.
-Glucose is activated by phosphorylation, the phosphate molecules come from the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules to ADP.
-Each glucose molecule is split into two 3-C molecules known as triose phosphate
-Hydrogen is removed from each of the triose phosphate molecules and transferred to a hydrogen-carrier molecule known as NAD.
-Enzyme controlled reactions convert each triose phosphate into pyruvate.
For each molecule of glucose, glycolysis produces:
2 x ATP , 2 x Pyruvate , 2 x NADH
2) Link Reaction
This is the conversion of the 3-C pyruvate…