CRIME AND DEVIANCE KEY STUDIES COVERED
Crime is normal , integral part of society although too much is dysfunctional – crime is not inevitable
Men take the breadwinner role
Women take performance/expressive home role
Davis (1937, 1961)
Prostitution is a safety valve for men’s sexual frustration – sexual frustration can and will lead to crime.
Pornography channels sexual desires away from adultery.
Strain Theory – Structural and cultural factors
A. Cohen (1955)
Crime is due to the lower class not being able to achieve by legitimate means, resorting to crime.
Cloward and Ohlin (1960)
Working class youths are denied legitimate opportunities to achieve ‘money success’ and creates deviance.
A deviant is someone who has been labelled successfully an deviant behaviour is due to this label.
Piliavin & Briar (1964)
Police decisions to arrest youths were all based on physical causes (manner and dress)
Police have criminal typifications and are more likely to arrest them giving them a label.
Distinguishes between primary (deviant acts without a label) and secondary deviance (result of societal reaction - labelling)
Hippy Marijuana users in Notting Hill. Turned a primary deviant act into a deviant subculture with a self-fulfilling prophecy
S. Cohen (1972)
Folk Devils and Moral Panics (Mods and Rockers) at Clacton on sea 1964, press exaggerated the story, causing a moral panic and a heightened affect
Marxism - Traditional
Laws are there to benefit Ruling Class e.g. protect property and the Capitalist economy
Slapper & Tombs (1999)
Corporate crime is purposely under-policed with minor prosecutions if caught
Hall et al. (1979)
Moral Panics over black Muggers that served the interest of capitalism.
Taylor, Walton & Young (1973)
Capitalist society is based on exploitation and class conflict by inequalities of wealth and power. The state makes and enforces laws in the interests of the capitalist class and criminalises the working class. Capitalism should be replaced by a classless society.
Realism – Right
Wilson & Herrnstein (1985)
Cause of crime is a combo of biological (some are innate e.g. aggression) and social factors (labelling, lifestyle)
Underclass is ever growing, which increases crime due to welfare dependency
Rational calculation of outcomes and risks
Wilson & Kelling (1982)
Broken Windows theory, once a possible crime is shown as available/people don’t care the crime is committed.
Realism – Left
Lea & Young (1984)
Three related causes of crime: 1. Relative deprivation 2. Subculture 3. Marginalisation
How deprived someone feels in relation to others if someone is not happy with their…