Medical applications of physics AQA P3.1

Revising cards on Unit 3.1

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  • Wave length is the same as the diameter of an atom
  • Cause ionistation which can cause cancer
  • Used to destroy tumors at skin surface
  • Absorbed by metal and bone
  • High energy electromagnetic wave
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CT Scans

  • Tube rotates so image is taken in every direction
  • Connected to a CCD(charge coupled device) which converts x-rays to light so we can see an image
  • Produces detailed, 3D images of organs or cross-sections
  • Shows difference between soft and hard tissues
  • More expensive than x-ray machine
  • Higher dose of x-ray than x-ray machine
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  • Human range of hearing is 20Hz to 20000Hz
  • Ultrasound is anything over 20000Hz
  • Transducer connected to computer is used to process information
  • Sound waves are partially reflected when they meet boundarys between different tissues
  • Time taken to reach a boundary is recorded to calculate distance
  • Non ionising and more accurate images

Distance(m)= speed(m/s) x time(s)

S = V X T

Used in pre-natal scanning and to break down kidney stones

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Refractive Index

Refraction-the changing of direction of light passing through one transparent medium to another
Refractive index- the measure of how much a substance can refract a light ray Sin(angle of incidence) / Sin(angle of refraction) = Refractive index The refractive index of a substance should always be the same regardless of angle, however measurement errors are likely A light ray travelling along a normal is not refracted.

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