AQA Physics Specification

All the main points of the specification typed out (for the Higher Tier). Repeating the specification correctly wil get you a B in the exam

HideShow resource information
Preview of AQA Physics Specification

First 334 words of the document:

Physics Specification
P1.1. Energy Transfer
Energy can be transferredfrom one place to another by work or by heating processes. We need
to know how this energy is transferred and which heating processes are most important in a
particular situation.
P1.1.1. Infrared Radiation
Allobjects emit and absorb infrared radiation
The hotter an object is the more infrared radiation it radiates in a given time.
Dark, matt surfaces are good absorbers and good emitters of infrared radiation.
Light, shiny surfaces are poor absorbers and poor emitters of infrared radiation.
Light, shiny surfaces are good reflectors of infrared radiation.
P1.1.2. Kinetic Theory
The use of kinetic theory to explain the different states of matter.
The particles of solids,liquids and gases have different amounts of energy and have different
arrangements and so move in different ways.
P1.1.3. Energy Transfer by Heating
The transfer of energy by conduction ,convection, evaporation and condensation involves
particles, and how this transfer takes place.
The rate at which an object transfers energy by heating depends on:
Surface area
and volume
The material from which the object is made
The nature of the surface with which the object is in contact
The bigger the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings, the faster the
rate at which energy is transferred by heating.
P1.1.4. Heating and Insulating Buildings
U-values measure how effective a material is as an insulator
The lower the U-value , the better the material is as an insulator.
Solar panels may contain water that is heated by radiation from the Sun. This water may then be
used to heat buildings or provide domestic hot water .
The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of energy required to change the
temperature of one kilogram of the substance by one degree Celsius .

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

E is energy transferred in joules, J
m is mass in kilograms, kg
is temperature change in degrees Celsius, °C
c is specific heat capacity in J / kg °C
P1.2. Energy and Efficiency
Appliances transfer energy but they rarely transfer allof the energy to the place we want. We
need to know the efficiency of appliances so that we can choose between them, including how
cost effectivethey are, and try to improve them.
P1.2.1.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

In some power stations an energy source is used to heat water . The steam produced drives a
turbine that is coupled to an electrical generator .
Energy sources include:
The fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which are burned to heat water or air
and plutonium , when energy from nuclear fission is used to heat water
that can be burned to heat water .
Water and wind can be used to drive turbines directly.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Waves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted . Significant diffraction only occurs when the
wavelength of the wave is of the same order of magnitude as the size of the gap or obstacle .
Waves undergo a change of directionwhen they are refracted at an interface .…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

The `Big Bang'theory is currently the only theory that can explain the existenceof CMBR.
P2.1. Forces and Their Effects
Forces can cause changes to the shape or motion of an object. Objects can move in a straight line
at a constant speed.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Graphs can help us to describe the movement of an object. These may be
distance-time graphs or velocity-time graphs.
P2.1.1. Resultant Forces
Whenever two objects interact, the forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite .
A number of forces acting at a point may be replaced by a single force that has the same effect on
the motion as the original forces all acting together. This single force is called the resultant force.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

A vehicle's braking distance can be affected by adverse road and weather conditions and poor
condition of the vehicle. Adverse road conditions' includes wet or icy conditions. Poor condition
of the car is limited to the car's brakes or tyres.
P2.1.4. Forces and Terminal Velocity
The faster an object moves through a fluid the greater the frictional force that acts on it.
An object fallingthrough a fluid will initially accelerate due to the force of gravity.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Gravitational potential energy is the energy that an object has by virtue of its positionin a
gravitational field .
Ep = m x g x h
Ep is the change in gravitational potential energy in joules, J
m is the mass in kilograms, kg
g is the gravitational field strength in newtons per kilogram, N/kg
h is the change in height in metres, m
When an object is raised vertically work is done
against gravitational
force and the object gains
gravitational potential energy.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

The potential difference (voltage) between two points in an electric circuitis the work done
(energy transferred ) per coulomb of charge that passes between the points.
V = W/Q
V is the potential difference in volts, V
W is the work done in joules, J
Q is the charge in coulombs, C
Circuit diagrams using standard symbols. The following standard symbols should be known:
Current­potential difference
graphs are used to show how the currentthrough a component varies
with the potential difference across it.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

The current through a component depends
on its resistance . The greater the resistance the
smaller the current for a given potential difference across the component.
The potential difference provided by cells connected in series is the sum of the potential
difference of each cell (depending on the direction in which they are connected).…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Physics resources:

See all Physics resources »See all resources »