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Speed and Velocity

Velocity is in a given
In a velocity-time graph, area
under the graph = distance


When an object is
stationary, all forces on it are balanced (i.e. downward force of weight is
balanced with upward

Car Safety
There are…

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An image is projected onto an electronically charged barrel. The areas in
shade (i.e. the image) retain their charge, whereas the areas exposed to
light lose their charge.
The barrel is then exposed to tiny particles of charged toner, which are
attracted to the charged area.
This is then transferred…

Page 3

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Parallel and Series circuits

Series ciruits Parallel Circuits
Current is constant Current is divided among
throughout (i.e. A1=A2=A3) components (i.e. A1=A2+A3)

Potential difference (voltage) of Potential difference is
the battery is divided constant throughout, and is
between components (i.e. equal to the voltage of the
V1=V2+V3) battery (i.e. V1=V2=V3)

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Page 5

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Mains electricity
Direct current: Always flows in the same direction, and is supplied by
cells and batteries.
Alternating current: Changes the direction of flow back and forth
continuously, and is supplied by mains electricity. The number of
complete cycles of reversal per second is called the frequency
(frequency = velocity/wavelength).…

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Current can be stopped by:
Fuses: The wire in a fuse is the thinnest point in a circuit and so melts
before damage can be done to an appliance in a current surge. Fuses
cannot be re-set, they must be replaced.
Circuit breakers: Contain an electromagnet which separates a pair…

Page 7

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Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with different numbers of

Alpha Particles ()
Helium nuclei made up of two protons and two neutrons 42He2+
10% of the speed of electromagnetic waves in air
Range in air of about 10cm in air
Cannot pass through paper or skin

Page 8

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Gold atoms, and therefore all atoms, are mostly empty space with a
small, dense positive nucleus (which repels positively charged alpha
particles which were fired at the gold).
The electrons are arranged around the nucleus with great space
between them.

Nuclear Fusion
Is the joining together of two or more…

Page 9

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Electromagnetic Induction
Movement produces current
If a wire cuts through the lines of force of a magnetic field (or vice
versa), a potential difference is induced between the ends of the wire.
If the wire is part of a complete circuit, a current will be induced.
Moving the magnet OUT…

Page 10

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In a transformer:

Vp = Np
Vs N s

In a step up transformer: Less coils More coils to increase p.d.
In a step down transformer: More coils less coils to decrease p.d.

When an object is balanced:
Total clockwise moments = Total anticlockwise moments.
Moment (Nm) = Force…


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