AQA Physics GCSE additional and further notes

AQA Physics GCSE additional and further notes

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  • Created on: 12-04-11 14:40
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Speed and Velocity
Velocity is in a given
In a velocity-time graph, area
under the graph = distance
When an object is
stationary, all forces on it are balanced (i.e. downward force of weight is
balanced with upward
Car Safety
There are various safety measures within a car:
Seat belts
Air Bags
Crumple zone
ABS and power-assisted steering

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Parallel and Series circuits
Series ciruits Parallel Circuits
Current is constant Current is divided among
throughout (i.e. A1=A2=A3) components (i.e. A1=A2+A3)
Potential difference (voltage) of Potential difference is
the battery is divided constant throughout, and is
between components (i.e. equal to the voltage of the
V1=V2+V3) battery (i.e. V1=V2=V3)
Potential difference is divided
among components according
to their ratio of resistance (i.e.
a 2 lamp would have twice
the potential difference of a 1
lamp.…read more

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Current can be stopped by:
Fuses: The wire in a fuse is the thinnest point in a circuit and so melts
before damage can be done to an appliance in a current surge. Fuses
cannot be re-set, they must be replaced.
Circuit breakers: Contain an electromagnet which separates a pair of
contacts if the current becomes too high (the increase in current
increases the strength of the electromagnet). Circuit breakers can be
re-set at the press of a button.…read more

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Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with different numbers of
neutrons.…read more

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Gold atoms, and therefore all atoms, are mostly empty space with a
small, dense positive nucleus (which repels positively charged alpha
particles which were fired at the gold).
The electrons are arranged around the nucleus with great space
between them.
Nuclear Fusion
Is the joining together of two or more atomic nuclei to form a larger nucleus.
Requires huge amounts of energy, and occurs at the core of the sun. More
energy is produced by fusion than it requires, and so it is self-sustaining.
1.…read more

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Electromagnetic Induction
Movement produces current
If a wire cuts through the lines of force of a magnetic field (or vice
versa), a potential difference is induced between the ends of the wire.
If the wire is part of a complete circuit, a current will be induced.
Moving the magnet OUT of the coil produces current in one direction.
Moving the magnet INTO the coil produces current in the opposite
direction.…read more

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In a transformer:
Vp = Np
Vs N s
In a step up transformer: Less coils More coils to increase p.d.
In a step down transformer: More coils less coils to decrease p.d.
When an object is balanced:
Total clockwise moments = Total anticlockwise moments.
Moment (Nm) = Force (m) x perpendicular distance (m)
To find the centre of mass, suspend the object from several points
around its edge, drawing the line of the plumbline. The point of
intersection marks the centre of mass.…read more


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